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PSYA02H3 (962)
Chapter 11

PSYA02 Chapter 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 11: Development - Development psychology is the study of continuity and change across the life spam PRENATALITY: A WOMB WITH A VIEW - prenatal stage of development ends with birth Prenatal Development - A zygote is a fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg - A zygote has one thing in common with the person it will ultimately become, gender - Each human sperm cell contains 23 chromosomes that contains genes, which provide the blueprint for all biological development - When the zygote implants itself on the uterine wall, a new stage of development begins. - The embryonic stage is a period that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week - fetal stage is a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth, the embryo at this stage in known as the fetus, which has a skeleton and muscles and are capable for movement - myelination is the formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron - There are two reasons why the humans are born with underdeveloped brains. First, bigger brains requires bigger heads to house them, so if the newborn’s head was as big as an adult head then it would be impossible to come out from the mothers birth canal. Second, since human brains shape from the environment, then if it comes in a fully shaped brain then, they won’t experience that Prenatal Environment - the womb is also an environment that influences development in many ways for example: food the mother eats, or inhales, all this passes through the placenta - Teratogens are agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses - Fetal alcohol Syndrome is a development disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy, which results in brain abnormalities INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD: BECOMING A PERSON - Infancy is the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months Perceptual and Motor Development - Motor Development is the emergence of the ability to execute physical actions like crawling, reaching and grasping - Reflexes are specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation. For example, rooting reflex is the tendency for infants to move their mouths towards any object that touches their cheeks. Sucking reflex is the tendency to suck any object that enters their mouth - the development of these behaviors tends to obey two rules. First, is the Cephalocaudal rule which describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in the sequence from head to feet. Second, proximodistal rule which describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from center to the periphery Cognitive Development - Cognitive development is the emergence of the ability to think and understand, the three important tasks of cognitive development are how the physical world works, how their minds represent it and how other minds represent it - Sensorimotor stage is a stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy - by actively exploring their environments with their eyes, mouths and fingers, infants begin to construct schemas, which are theories about or models of the way the world works - The theory of assimilation occurs when infants apply their schemas in novel situations - The process of accommodation, occurs when infants revise their schemas in light of new information - infants don’t have the theory of object permanence, which is the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible - childhood, is the stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts till adolescence - According to Piaget, childhood consisted of two stages. First, preoperational stage, which is the stage of development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years and during which the child learns about physical objects. Second, concrete operational stage, begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years, where the child learns about various operations - conservation is the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the objects appearance - formal operational stage, is the stage of development that begins around the age of 11 and lasts through adulthood - children expect others to see the world as they do, egocentrism, is the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers - theory of mind is the idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations - Lev Vygotsky
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