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Chapter 9-12

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Michael Petit

Chapter 9 • Intelligence is the ability to think, understand, reason, and cognitively adapt to and overcome obstacles • Achievement tests – measure knowledge and thinking skills that an individual has acquired • Aptitude tests – designed to measure an individual’s potential to perform well on a specific range of tasts • Predictive validity – the degree to which a test predicts future performance • Standardized test – test that has a set of questions or problems that are administered and scored in a uniform way across large numbers of individuals • Test scores can be compared because of norms( statistics that allow individuals to be evaluated relative to a typical or standard score • Percentile rank – the percentage of scores below a certain point • Binet preferred to test mental age – the average or typical test score for a specific chronological age • Intelligence quotient (IQ) – a measurement in which the mental age of an individual is divided by the person’s chronological age then multiplied by 100 • Wechsler Adult intelligence scale (WAIS) – the most commonly used intelligence test used on adolescents and adults • Raven’s Progressive Matrices( Raven’s Matrices) – an intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are intended not to be bound to a particular language or culture. • Galton became one of the first to try to scientifically measure intelligence through a program of research – anthropometrics – a historical term referring to the method of measuring physical and mental variation in humans • Charles Spearman began by developing techniques to calculate correlations among multiple measures of mental abilities – factor analysis – statistical technique that reveals similarities among a wide variety of items • Spearman’s correlation led to existence of general intelligence – a concept that intelligence is a basic cognitive trait comprising the ability to learn, reason, and solve problems regardless of their nature • Savants – individuals with low mental capacity in most domains but extraordinary abilities in other specific areas such as music, math, or art • Howard Gardner proposed the concept of Multiple intelligences – a model claiming that eight different forms of intelligence exists • Learning styles – hypothesis that individuals are fundamentally different in how they best acquire information • Flynn effect- refers to the stead population level increase in intelligence test scores over time • Behavioral genomics – study of how specific genes, in their interactions with the environment, influence behavior • Carol Dweck had two influencial bliefs: o Entity theory – belief that intelligence is a fixed characteristic and relatively difficult to change o Incremental theory – belief that intelligence can be shaped by experiences, practice and effort • Stereotype threat – when people are aware of stereotypes about their social group, they may fear being reduced to that stereotype Chapter 10 • Developmental psychology – he study of change and stability of human physical cognitive, social, and behavioral characteristic across the life span • Cross sectional design – used to measure and compare samples of people at different ages at a given point in time • Longitudinal design – follows the development of the same set of individuals through time • One major issue to consider in cross sectional designs is the potential for cohort effect – consequences of being born in a particular year or narrow range of years • Sensitive period – window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environment stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability • Germinal stage – the first phase of prenatal development and spans form conception to twoweeks • It all begins at fertilization with the formation of a zygote – a cell formed by fusion of a sperm and an ovum • Embryonic stage – spans weeks two through eight, during which time the embryo beings developing major physical structures such as the heart and nervous system, as well as the beginnings of arms, legs, hands and feet • Preterm infants – born at 36 weeks or earlier, depending on their gestational age, they can be extremely underweight and body underdeveloped. • Teratogen – a substance, such as a drug, capable of producing physical defects • Fetal alcohol syndrome first described in 1970s, involves abnormalities in mental functioning, growth, and facial development in the offspring of women who use alcohol during pregnancy • Synaptic pruning – the loss of weak nerve cell connections • Jean Piaget is often credited with initiating the modern science of Cognitive development – the study of changes in memory , thought, and reasoning processes that occur throughout the life span • Piaget put these together and named this earliest period of cognitive development the sensorimotor stage – referring to the period in which infants’ thinking and understanding about the world is based on sensory experiences and physical actions they perform on objects • Object permanence – the ability to understand that objects exist even when they cannot be seen or touched, Piaget proposed that it is a major milestone • Preoperational stage – spans ages two through seven years, is characterized by understanding symbols, pretend play, and mastery of the concept of conservation • Conservation – the knowledge that the quantity or amount of an object is not related to the physical arrangement and appearance of that object • Conservation is one of the main skills marking the transition from the preoperational stage to what Piaget called concrete operational stage – (roughly spanning ages 7 to 11 years)when children develop skills in using and manipulating numbers as well as logical thinking • Formal operational stage –(spanning form approximately 11 years of age to adulthood) involves the development of advanced cognitive processes such as abstract reasoning and hypothetical thinking • Core knowledge – a view on development proposing that infants have inborn abilities for understanding some key aspects of their environment • The optimal development of mastering a skill between working alone and not having an opportunity to get challenged is called zone of proximal development(Lev Vygotsky) – • Scaffolding – the approach to teaching in which the teacher matches guidance ot learner or student’s needs • Attachment – enduring emotional bond formed between individuals • 24 months of age, toddlers show evidence of self - awareness • Young children sometimes are egocentric – they perceive and interpret the world in terms of the self • Perspective taking in young children has been demonstrated in studies of theory of mind – the ability to recognize the thoughts, beliefs, and expectations of others, and to understand that these can be different from one’s own • temperament – their general emotional reactivity, which is regarded as the root from which several aspects of adult personality grow • girl’s puberty is marked by menarche – the onset of menstruation • boys are considered to reach sexual maturity at spermarche – first ejaculation of sperm • a major issue faced by adolescents is the formation of an identity – a self image and a perception of one’s unque and individual characteristics • identity statuses- are the processes and outcomes of identity development that include elements of both crisis and personal commitment • Aging also puts people at greater risk for developing serious neurodegenerative condition, which are significant loss of nerve cells • Dementia refers to a set of symptoms including mild to severe disruption of mental functioning, memory less, disorientation, poor judgment, and decision making • Approximately 14% of people older than 71 have dementia, and 10% of those cases involved a type of dementia called Alzheimer’s disease – degenerative and terminal condition resulting in severe damage of the entire brain • Authoritative parenting is characterized by the expression of warmth and responsiveness to the needs of children, but also by exercising control over certain actions • Authoritarian parenting emphasizes excessive control over children and less expression of warmth • Indulgent- permissive parenting are warm but indifferent and do not attempt to control their children, even in positive and helpful ways • Indifferent – uninvolved parenting – shows neither warmth nor control toward their children • Emotional well being – subjective experience of both positive and negative emotions, and is measured by life satisfaction, happiness, and the balance between negative positive emotional experiences Chapter 11 • New saying to you are what you eat, it is now, you are how you eat • Motivation concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organism toward specific goals • Homeostasis – the body’s physiological processes that allow it to maintain consisten internal state in response to the out environment • Motivated behavior involves drives - the physiological triggers that tell us we may be deprived of something and cause us to seek out what is needed, such as food • Also respond to incentives which is the stimuli we seek to reduce the drives such as social approval and companionship, food, water, and other needs. • Hunger – the motivation to eat • Full stomach is only one cue for satiation – the point in
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