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PSYA02H3 (961)


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Steve Joordens

 Psychology- PSYA02H3S  INTELLIGENCE,APTITUDEAND COGNITIVEABILITIES  9.1 MeasuringAptitude and Intelligence  Intelligence - is the ability to think, understand, reason and cognitively adapt to and overcome obstacles  Achievement andAttitude  Achievements Test - measure knowledge and thinking skill that an individual has acquired  Aptitude Test - are designed to measure an individual's potential to perform well on a specific task  In short achievement test measures current abilities and aptitude predict future performance  Constructing and Evaluating Tests  Psychometrics - the measurement of psychological traits and abilities - including personality attitudes and intelligence  Two important concept of Psychometrics are  Validity - the degree to which a test actually measures the trait or ability it is intended to measure • Predictive Validity - degree to which a test predicts future performance  Reliability - the measurement of the degree to which a test produces consistent results  Standardization and Norms  Standardized Test - is a test that has a set of question or problems that are administered and scored in a uniform (in other words, standardized)  Norms - statistics that allow individuals to be evaluated relative to a typical or standard score  Standard Deviation - measures variability around a mean  average distance from the average  from this we can see what is below average and above average  Percentile Rank - the percentage score below a certain point  ex. a score of 100 has a percentile rank of 0.50 means that 50% of the pop. scores below this level  Approaches to Intelligence Testing  The Stanford Binet Test  MentalAge - the average or typical test score for a specific chronological age, rather than intelligence  Stanford Binet Test - a test intended to measure innate (genetic) intelligence  Intelligence Quotient(IQ) - a measurement in which the mental age of an individual is divided by the person's chronological age and then multiplied by 100  Ex a 10 yr old child with a mental age of 7 would have an IQ of 7/10 * 100 = 70 • person has a mental age of 7 so they are 3 yrs behind • he has an IQ of 70, so he is 30 points below average  The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) - is the most commonly used intelligence test used on adolescents and adults  Figure 9.2  Raven's Progressive Matrices  intelligence is a universal human quality, independent of culture and language  people should not be penalized on an intelligence test if he or she did not have an English vocabulary or could not understand what a question meant  Raven's Progressive Matrices - an intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are intended not to be bound to a particular language or cultures  main set of tasks found in RPM measure the extent to which test takers can see patterns in the shapes and colours within a matrix and then determine which shape or color would complete the pattern  accord to RPM two abilities are key to intelligent behaviour identifying and extracting important information (deductive reasoning) and then applying it to new situation (reproductive reasoning).  Measuring Perception and Memory  Anthropometrics - (literally the 'measurement of people') a historical term referring to the method of measuring physical and mental variation in humans  researchers found high correlation between working memory capacity and standardized reasoning tests  working memory test measure how well one can hold instruction and information in memory while completing problem-solving tasks 9.2 Understanding Intelligence  Intelligence as a Single, GeneralAbility  Table 9.1 - IMPORTANT  1. students who do well in all subject in all areas where as some students cannot do well in all subjects in all areas  2. students who do well in one area (ex. math) however, do poorly in another area (ex. English)  1 - is intended to get you to think in terms of intelligence as a trait that people can apply to all sort of problems including math, language, and mechanics  this perspective dictates that people who rate high in general in intelligence should do well at all sorts of tasks, whereas those who rate low in general intelligence would likely struggle across each of the same tasks  Factor Analysis - is a statistical technique that reveal similarities among a wide variety of items  ex. measures such as comprehension, verbal reasoning, vocabulary and reading might overlap to form a 'language ability' factor  Spearman's General Intelligence  General Intelligence (g) - a concept that intelligence is a basic cognitive trait comprising the ability to learn, reason, and solve problems regardless of their nature  a person with a high g score could use their general intelligence to solve problems in any domain they choose even in fields different as reading comprehension and algebra  What do we know about different types of intelligence  intelligence is divisible into at least two categories  Fluid Intelligence - (Gf) a type of intelligence that is used to adapt to new situation and solve new problems without relying on previous knowledge  Crystallized Intelligence (Gc) - a form of intelligence that relies on extensive experience and knowledge and therefore tends be to relatively stable and robust  Intelligence as Multiple, SpecificAbilities  Savants - are individuals with low mental capacity in most domains but extraordinary abilities in other specific areas such as music, mathematics or art.  if intelligence was a single ability then we would not expect such brilliance in one area and impaired functioning in others  Triarchic Theory of Intelligence - a model of intelligence consisting of three domains  Analytical Intelligence: the verbal, mathematical problem solving type of intelligence that probably comes to mind when we speck of intelligence. It is close to the concept of academic achievement and the notion of intelligence is measured by g  Practical Intelligence: is the ability to address real-world problems that are encountered in daily life, especially those that occur in an individual's specific work context and family life  Creative Intelligence: is the ability to create new ideas to solve problems. Obviously artists must have some level of creative intelligence, but the same is true for any kind of designer. It also takes creative intelligence to be a scientist because creative thinking is often required to conceive of good scientific hypotheses and develop ways of testing them   Multiple Intelligence - a model claiming that eight different forms of intelligence exist, each independent from the others   Learning Styles - the hypothesis that individuals are fundamentally different in how they best acquire information  Figure 9.12 = Important  Evaluating Theories of Single and Multiple Intelligences  The Flynn Effect: Is Everyone Getting Smarter  intelligence test are improving at a steady pace for decades  Flynn Effect - refers to the steady population increases in intelligence test scores over time 9.3 HEREDITY, ENVIRONMENT,AND INTELLIGENCE  Intelligence and Heredity  Samuel Morton measured skull sizes in an attempt to show racial and ethnic differences in cognitive ability, and assumed that skull size - and therefore intelligence were almost entirely genetically determined  Behavioural Genetics three layered approach  Genetics - to what degree is intelligence an inherited trait?  Genes - if intelligence does have a genetic component which genes are involved?  Genome - if we can identify which genes contribute to intelligence then how exactly do they contribute to brain development and function  Twin and Adoption Studies  genetic similarity contributes to intelligence test scores  as genetic relatedness increases as does intelligence  identical twins are more alike in intelligence than fraternal twins  Behavioural Genomics  twin and adoption studies show that some of the individual differences observed in intelligence scores can be attributed to genetic factors  Behavioural Genomics - the study of how specific genes, in their interactions with the environment, influence behaviour
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