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Chapter 13

PSYA02H3 MODULE 13.1 CHAPTER 13.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYA02H3 WEEK 5: 14.02.03. CHAPTER 13: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Module 13.1 Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorders ­ To understand psychological disorders, two complementary models must be  applied 1. Medical model: using our understanding of medical conditions   Psychological disorders have sets of symptoms, probably causes,  and likely outcomes as well as preventative measures,  interventions, and treatments geared towards psychological  disorders  History and various cultures provided explanations over what we  now call psychological disorders → I.e. someone experiencing hallucinations in the States can  be diagnosed with a psychological disorder but in other  places or times, they could be associated with evil spirits  or possessions 2. Biopsychosocial model   I.e. biological factors contributing to depression involves disrupted  activity of neurotransmitters like serotonin; psychological factors  include persistent negative feelings about the self; social factors  such as impoverished neighborhoods or stressful family problems  can contribute to depression DEFINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Abnormal psychology is the psychological study of mental illness. ­ Term “abnormal” needs to be clarified  ­ Person purposefully harming oneself is acting abnormally; someone obtaining a  medical degree before the age of 20 is unusual but mayn’t suffer any mental  illness ­ Difference between the two unusual individuals is that the person harming  themselves is demonstrating maladaptive behavior – behavior that hinders a  person’s ability to function in work, school, relationships, or society ­ American Psychiatric Association provides three main criteria to identify  maladaptive behavior: 1. The behavior causes distress to self or others 2. The behavior impairs the ability to function in day­to­day activities 3. The behavior increases the risk of injury, death, legal problems or  punishment for breaking rules, or other detrimental consequences 1 Psychology’s Puzzle: Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4  edition, Text Revisions)  (abbr. DSM­IV) – the manual that establishes criteria for the diagnosis of mental  disorders.  ­ DSM­IV offers set of clear guidelines to determine presence and severity of 350  mental disorders ­ For each disorder, DSM­IV presents three important pieces of information about a  person’s experience: a set of symptoms; the etiology, or the origins of symptoms; 
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