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Chapter 15-16

PSYA02H3: Chapter 15-16 (Mtuner 4 Review)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter  15.1:  Social  Influences  on  Behavior  &  Attitudes     • Social  psychology:  broad  field  of  study  that  includes  how  individuals  perceive  &   think  about  other  people,  as  well  as  how  the  presence  of  other  people  can  influence   individual’s  behaviors   •  Social  norms:  are  the  (usually  unwritten)  guidelines  for  how  to  behave  in  social   contexts     o E.g.  most  colleges  have  a  few  norms  that  are  specific  to  that  campus,  such  as   how  to  dress  for  class,  how  to  address  the  faculty,  &  how  to  behave  in  the   classroom     • Social  roles:  specific  sets  of  behaviors  that  are  associated  with  a  position  within  a   group       o While  norms  are  general  rules  that  apply  to  members  of  a  group,  roles  are   guidelines  that  apply  to  specific  positions  within  the  group-­‐>  professor,   student,  coach,  parent,  prison  guard     • Volunteers  were  randomly  assigned  to  play  guards/  prisoners  in  the  Stanford   Prison  study  in  1971  -­‐>  each  group  their  roles  so  seriously  that  the  researchers   called  off  the  experiment  before  it  was  even  halfway  completed  (6  days  later;   although  planned  for  2  weeks)     o The  Stanford  Prison  Study  researchers  came  to  the  conclusion  that  roles,  and   no  individual  personalities  were  the  main  influence  on  the  volunteer   behaviors  because  the  prisoners  and  prison  guards  were  psychologically   similar  prior  to  the  start  of  the  experience     • Mimicry:  occurs  when  one  person  copies  another’s  behavior     o Useful  in  foreign  country  when  you  don’t  know  the  language  and  no  one  is   around  to  help  you  translate     o Chameleon  effect:  occurs  when  individuals  mimic  another  behaviors  without   meaning  to  or  realizing  that  they  are  doing  it  -­‐>  “just  happens”     ▯ E.g.  walking  slower  in  the  presence  of  the  elderly,  scratching  one’s   head  after  someone  else  does  the  same     o More  likely  to  mimic  others  when  we  need  to  make  a  good  impression,  want   to  be  liked,  or  want  to  be  part  of  a  group     o Study  of  mimicry  focuses  on  how  we  are  influenced  by  a  single  individual,  bu   being  part  of  a  group  can  affect  out  behaviors   o Conformity:    refers  to  a  change  in  behavior  to  fit  in  with  a  group     ▯ Unlike  chameleon  effect,  conformity  is  a  conscious  decision     • First  scientific  studies  of  conformity  -­‐>  1950’s  by  Solomon  Asch     o Confederates  (individuals  working  for  the  experiment)   • Social  loafing:  occurs  when  an  individual  working  as  a  part  of  a  group  or  team   reduces  his/  her  effort   o Appear  in  physical  activities  (swimming,  rope-­‐pulling),  cognitive  activities   (problem  solving,  perceptual  tests),  creativity  (song  writing)  -­‐>  affects   equally  all  types  of  groups,  regardless  of  age,  gender  and  nationality     1) My  effort  will  not  help  my  performance     a. Loafing  may  occur  if  an  individual  believes  she  is  not  capable  of   doing  well   2) My  performance  will  not  make  a  difference  to  the  group’s  performance     a. May  occur  if  individual  believes  he  could  do  well  but  group  as  a   whole  would  do  poorly  or  group  would  be  fine  without  him     3) The  group  may  get  rewarded  but  it  won’  matter  to  me     a. Loafing  members  just  want  to  get  group  effort  over  with     4) No  one  else  is  trying  very  hard     a. Social  loafing  can  be  contagious  -­‐>  if  one  loafs,  others  may  loaf     • Social  facilitation:  occurs  when  an  individual’s  performance  is  better  in  the   presence  of  others  than  when  alone     o E.g.  runner  who  completes  a  mile  in  a  little  more  than  5  mins  by  himself   might  finally  take  a  break  the  5-­‐min  mark  when  running  with  his  track   teammates     o The  presence  of  others  does  not  always  help  performance   ▯ General  rule  -­‐>  when  individuals  have  mastered  a  task,  the  audience   can  help,  whereas  for  novices  having  an  audience  can  hurt   performance       • Groupthink:  a  decision-­‐making  problem  in  which  group  members  avoid  arguments   and  strive  for  agreement   o Conflicts  can  be  unpleasant  for  some  people  &  they  can  certainty  get  in  the   way  of  group  decision  making    -­‐>  when  everyone  avoids  argument,  3  main   problems:     1) Group  often  becomes  overconfident  &  gains  sense  of  excitement  about  its   progress     2) Group  members  may  minimize/  ignore  potential  problems  &  risks     3) May  apply  social  pressure  to  members  who  are  not  fully  in  support  of  the   idea  in  an  effort  to  get  them  to  conform       • Obedience:  complying  with  instructions/  orders  from  an  individual  who  is  in  a   position  of  authority     o Authority  comes  from  a  combo  of  social  roles  &  social  context   o More  likely  to  obey  parents,  teachers,  bosses,  law  enforcement  officials     o Stabley  Milgram  conducted  experiment  in  1961     ▯ The  “shock  generator”  that  the  teacher  operated  to  punish  the  learner     ▯ The  “learner”  get  set  up  to  participate  in  the  experiment  -­‐>  hooked  up   to  the  device  that  the  teacher  believes  will  deliver  a  shock     ▯ The  experimenter  explains  the  “teacher”  what  the  experimental   procedure  entails  and  how  to  use  the  shock  generator     ▯ Although  most  subjects  were  highly  obedient,  some,  refused  to   continue  complying  with  the  experimenters  orders     • Groupthink  is  least  likely  to  occur  when  group  members  have  very  different   sociopolitical  values     • While  working  on  a  group  project  in  class,  Dustin  tries  extra  hard  &  volunteers  to   take  on  more  work  then  the  rest  of  the  group.  Based  on  this,  fellow  group  members   decide  to  slack  off  a  little.  Dustin  is  demonstrating  social  facilitation,  while  his   group  is  demonstrating  social  loafing     • In  reality,  likely  that  we  have  a  bias  blind  spot  -­‐>  tend  to  be  blind  to  social  influences   on  our  beliefs     o We  tend  to  think  of  our  beliefs  as  being  our  own  and  as  being  immune  to   group  influences     • Group  polarization:  occurs  when  members  of  a  group  discuss  characteristic   attitudes  of  their  group  and,  as  a  result,  their  views  become  stronger     o When  this  happens  in  two  competing  groups,  their  opinions  become   polarized,  meaning  that  the  two  groups  become  further  apart  in  their   opinions         • Cognitive  dissonance:  occurs  when  an  individual  has  two  thoughts  (cognitions)   that  are  inconsistent  with  each  other  (dissonance)  and,  as  a  result,  experiences   motivation  to  reduce  the  discrepancy     o Cognitive  dissonance  brings  about  tension  -­‐>  some  may  be  bigger  than  others   =  provides  motivation  for  an  individual  to  reduce  the  cognitive  dissonance   either  by  changing  a  behavior  changing  an  attitude     ▯ Traced  back  to  story  by  Leon  Festinger  &  colleagues     • Justification  of  effort:  telling  themselves  that  their  efforts  were  justified  because   those  efforts  prevented  the  flood  (in  the  story)       • Foot-­‐in-­‐the-­‐door  technique:  involves  making  a  simple  request  followed  by  a  more   substantial  request     o Starts  with  a  small  request  and  then  moves  on  a  larger  request     o Asking  individuals  to  commit  an  hour  (big  request)  -­‐>  start  off  with  a  smaller   commitment-­‐  signing  a  petition  first     • Door-­‐in-­‐the-­‐face  technique:  begin  with  a  large  request  that  is  likely  to  be  turned   down,  followed  by  a  smaller  request  that  is  likely  to  be  accepted     o Rather  than  asking  someone  to  volunteer  an  hour  of  her  time  for  a  huge   commitment-­‐  volunteering  four  days  every  week   • Central  route  (to  persuasion):  in  which  individuals  take  time,  evaluate  evidence,   and  use  valid  logic  &  arguments     • Peripheral  route  (to  persuasion):  in  which  quick  judgments  are  made  based  on   limited  evidence,  and  emotions  and  vague  impressions  are  used  more  than  logic         • The  central  route  relies  on  information  &  evaluation  of  opinions,  whereas  the   peripheral  route  is  based  on  intuition  and  quick  decisions     • Sequential  persuasion  techniques  like  the  foot-­‐on-­‐the-­‐door  technique  may  work   because  they  wear  down  one’s  sense  of  self-­‐control  or  self-­‐regulation     o E.g.  Greg  asked  you  to  sign  a  petition  for  his  student  fundraising  group  After   he  gets  your  signature,  he  asks  you  for  a  small  donation       Chapter  15.2:  Social  Cognition   • Social  cognitive  psychology:     o Cognitions  (perceptions,  thoughts,  beliefs)     o Social  contexts     • Intuitive  thought:  quick,  effortless,  automatic  thinking  (requires  great  effort  when   you  try  to  control  it)   o Intuitions  tend  to  be  based  on  associations;  as  individual  encounters  a   person  or  situation  and  some  things  juts  “pop”  into  mind     • Deliberative  thought:  more  careful,  effortful  &  rational  process     o Slower,  requires  some  effort,  and  usually  takes  place  one  step  at  a  time     • Intuitive  thinking  precedes  deliberation     • Person  perception:  refers  to  the  processes  by  which  individuals  form  judgments  &   categorize  other  people     o Begins  immediately  in  our  social  encounters,  &  guided  by  our  past   experiences  with  others     o First  impressions  can  be  explained  by  the  automatic  side  of  social  cognitions   (very  little  info  on  which  to  evaluate)   o We  rely  on  schemas:  clusters  of  knowledge  and  expectations  about   individuals  &  groups     ▯ Persons  gender,  race,  style  of  dress  all  activate  schemas  -­‐>  bring   certain  traits  to  mind  automatically     ▯ Thin  slices:  basing  judgments  of  others  on  very  limited  information    -­‐ >  In  many  instances,  lasting  &  often  accurate  impressions  of  others   form  in  just  a  few  moments     o According  to  research  on  thin  slices,  our  perceptions  of  others  are  formed   immediately  &  with  only  physical  appearances  as  a  source  of  information     ▯ It  turns  out  that  our  initial  perceptions  can  be  quite  accurate     ▯ We  have  a  strong  tendency  to  judge  personality  characteristics  based   on  physical  appearances     • Self-­‐fulfilling  prophecy:  occurs  when  a  first  impression  affects  the  observers   behavior  and,  as  a  result,  the  first  impression  comes  true     o When  teachers  have  high  expectations  of  a  student,  they  behave  differently   toward  that  student     o Although  they  sometimes  come  true,  does  not  mean  we  are  destined  to  fulfill   them   • Attributions:  explanations  we  make  about  the  causes  of  behavior       1) Internal  attribution  (aka  dispositional  attribution):  the  observer   explains  the  actors  behavior  as  due  to  some  intrinsic  quality  of  the  actor  -­‐>   lazy,  wants  attention     2) External  attribution  (aka  situational  attribution):  the  observer  explains   the  actors  behavior  as  the  result  of  the  social  context       • Fundamental  attribution  error:  tendency  to  make  internal  attributions  for  others’   behaviors  while  ignoring  external  influences     o Driver  swerving  in  traffic   • Self-­‐  serving  bias:  We  will  use  internal  attributions  for  ourselves  when  we  do   something  well,  but  external  attributions  when  we  fail  or  commit  errors   • People  tend  to  explain  other’s  behaviors  in  terms  of  internal  attributions,  but   explain  our  own  behavior  based  on  which  type-­‐  internal  or  external-­‐  makes  them   feel  good  about  themselves     o Individuals  with  severe  forms  of  depression  &  anxiety  appear  much  less   susceptible  to  the  self-­‐  serving  bias-­‐  50%     ▯ Might  actually  reduce  our  chances  for  psychological  distress   o E.g.  Bob,  once  poor  inherited  $5  million  &  decided  to  donate  $1000  to  a  local   charity  -­‐>  he  believed  he  took  this  step  because  he  is  a  kind  &  generous  man     • Stereotype:  set  of  beliefs  about  a  group  of  people     o Viewed  as  a  type  of  schema     o Individuals  are  more  likely  to  experience  prejudice:  an  attitude  based  on   stereotypes  that  includes  emotions  &  value  judgments  as  well     • Discrimination:  behavior  based  on  prejudice     • Outgoing:  collection  of  people  who  are  perceived  as  different     o Does  not  have  to  be  disliked  or  in  competition  with  your  own  group;  just  the   perception  of  difference  is  enough  to  make  the  distinction  between  groups     o E.g.  your  own  classmates,  who  make  your  ingroup,  are  perceived  as  having   more  positive  qualities     • Similarity  between  self  serving  bias  and  ingroup  bias:  which  occurs  when  we   attribute  positive  qualities  to  the  social  group  we  belong  to     • Scapegoating:  occurs  when  people  use  stereotypes  to  misplace  &  exaggerate  blame   on  others     o E.g.  during  economic  slumps,  an  outgroup  is  often  targeted  for  taking  jobs   from  the  ingroup  or  for  draining  resources  from  the  local  economy     o In  general,  people  tend  to  overvalued  the  qualities  of  their  ingroup  and   undervalue  the  qualities  of  other  groups     • Caucasian  people  in  US  are  increasingly  concerned  about  whether  they  appear   prejudiced  &  more  likely  than  ever  to  say  that  racism  is  a  problem     o Today,  African  Americans  &  Latinos  more  likely  to  obtain  diplomas  +  higher   degree  of  education     • Explicit  prejudice:  occurs  when  individuals  confess  to  or  openly  demonstrate  their   stereotypes     • Implicit  prejudice:  include  forms  of  stereotyping  &  prejudice  that  are  kept  silent,   either  intentionally  or  because  individuals  are  unaware  of  their  own  prejudice     o One  way  of  measuring  -­‐>  Implicit  Associations  test  (IAT)       ▯ How  fast  people  can  respond  to  images  or  words  flashed  on  a   computer  screen     ▯ Based  on  how  long  it  takes  people  to  respond  to  positive/  negative   words  along  with  Black/  White  faces     • Stereotypes  can  be  expressed  outwardly  &  very  explicitly     o All  stereotypes  are  of  negative  characteristics     o Often  experiences  implicitly     Chapter  15.3:  Helping  &  Harming  Others       • Prosocial  behaviors:  those  behaviors  that  promote  social  functioning,  group   cohesion,  or  well-­‐being  of  the  individuals  within  the  group     • Antisocial  behaviors  may  serve  one  individual/  small  group  at  the  expense  of  the   greater  community   • Empathy:  emotional  concern  one  individual  has  for  another’s  well-­‐being     o Includes  feelings  of  compassion/  distress  for  the  condition  of  others     o Humans  have  a  specialized  type  of  nerve  cell  that  could  possibly  serve  has  a   basis  for  empathy  -­‐>  called  mirror  neurons,  respond  to  actions  &  expressions   of  others  &  are  correlated  with  the  ability  to  understand  another’s  intentions   and  emotions         • Shared  physiology:  phenomenon  when  physiological  responses  tended  o  match   those  of  the  person  experiencing  the  distress     • Socio-­‐exchange  theory:  states  that  an  individual  will  consider  the  costs  and   benefits  of  helping  another  before  he/  she  acts     o Approach  treats  helping  much  like  a  financial  arrangement  between   individuals  and  society     o Cost  &  benefit  ratios  of  these  arrangements  can  be  highly  variable     ▯ Simple  acts  of  charity,  such  as  dropping  coins  in  the  Salvation  Army   collection  pot,  donating  a  few  canned  foods   • Altruism:  helping  others  in  need  without  receiving/  expecting  reward  for  doing  so   o Heroic  deed,  like  that  of  Wesley  Autey  (leapt  in  front  of  A  NY  subway  to  save   Cameron  Hollopeter,  who  had  fallen  on  the  tracks  after  having  a  seizure)     • Social  responsibility  norm:  Society  teaches  us  that  the  value  of  helping  goes   beyond  the  benefits  an  individual  might  receive,  and  that  individuals  who  cannot   help  themselves  require  special  help     o People  feel  compelled  to  helping  children,  the  elderly,  those  with  medical   crises     • Concept  of  costly  signaling:  explains  acts  of  altruism  as  signals  to  others  that  the   helper  would  be  a  valuable  mate     o Like  a  gamble  -­‐>  big  payoffs,  but  it  is  potentially  costly     ▯ E.g.  Chasing  down  a  thief  who  has  stolen  a  strangers  purse   o Why  would  anyone  help  others  if  all  it  did  was  jeopardize  evolutionary   success?     ▯ Kin  selection:  which  predicts  that  altruistic  behavior  is  more  likely  to   occur  when  it  fives  a  genetic  benefit  to  the  individual     • E.g.  if  mother  sacrifices  herself  for  her  child,  her  altruism  raises   the  chances  that  her  genes  will  survive-­‐  not  in  her,  of  course,   but  in  her  offspring   ▯ One  challenge:  helping  behavior  extends  well  beyond  genetic  relatives   =>  we  help  friends,  neighbors,  even  complete  strangers     • Reciprocal  altruism:  refers  to  helping  behavior  extended  to   non-­‐genetic  relatives,  with  the  possibility  that  the  favor  may  be   later  returned     o May  sound  like  something  uniquely  human,  but  it  also   occurs  in  nonhuman  species  -­‐>  can  be  found  among   vampire  bats  -­‐>  when  adult  bats  return  to  the  cave  after   gathering  blood  from  their  hosts,  locating  their  hungry   offspring  can  be  challenging  -­‐>  they  will  feed  unrelated   offspring  if  they  cannot  find  their  own  brood   • Bystander  effect:  occurs  when  an  individual  in  a  group  does  not  provide  help,   either  because  the  person  believes  someone  else  will  help  or  because  the  other   people  in  the  group  are  not  helping  either   o 1964,  Kitty  Genovese  who  died  in  NY  after  brutal  attack  with  40  witnesses   who  could  have  intervened  or  called  for  help     o Possibility  that  the  experience  is  -­‐>  diffusion  of  responsibility:  occurs  when   people  feel  less  responsibly  for  an  individual  in  need  when  in  the  presence  of   a  group       • Aggression:  any  behavior  intended  to  hurt  or  harm  an  individual     1) Physically     2) Ver
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