Chapter 13 : Psychological Disorder
Medical model: usuing our undertanding of medical condtions to think
about the psyhological conditions.
Psychological factors include persitent megative beliefs about the self and
Social factors such as improverished neighborhoods and stressful family
Abnormal psychology is the psychological study of mental illness.
The difference between these two “unusual” individuals is that ther pesron
who harms himself is exhibiting maladaptive behaviour, or behaviour that
hinders a person’s ability to function in work, school, relationships or society.
To ditinguish between the abnormal and the unusual.
- the behaviour casues distress to self or other.
- the behaviour impairs the ability to function in day-to-day activities.
- the behaviour increases the risk of injury, death, legal problems or
punishment for breaking rules or other detrimental consequences.
Diagnostic and statistial manual for mental disorder (DSM-IV) the manual
that extablishes criteria for the diagnosis of mental disorders.
Etiology, or the origins or causes of symptoms.
Pst-traumatic stree disorder (PTSD)
Dimensional views of psychological distorders becaue the normal-abnormal
distinction is a matter of degree.
Categorical view of psychological disroders regards different mental onditions
as separate types; difference between normal and abnormal functioning are
kind, rather than degree.
Down syndrome is an example of a categorical disorder.
Two mental health issues that affect the public sphere include the insanity
defense and the public perception of individuals who have mental illness.
Insanity is a legal concept and is not diretly related to psychological
diagnoses and treatment.
Insanity defence is the legal strategy of claiming that a defendant was
unable to differentiate between right and wrong when the criminal at was
committed. Personality disorder as particularly unusual patterns of behaviour for one’s ulture
that are maladaptive, distressing to oneself or others and resistant to change.
The DSM-IV identifies clusters of personality disorders involving (1) odd or
eccenttric behaviour, (2) dramatic, emotional, and errati behaviour; and (3) anxious,
fearful and inhibited behaviour.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by intense extremes
between positive and negative emotions, an unstable sense of self, impulsivitity, and
difficulty social relationships.
Self-injury which may involve utting or burning oneself.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is characterizied by an inflated and
admiration, as well as intense self-doubt and fear of abandonment.
Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) which is characterized by excessive
attention seeking and dramatic behaviour.
Antisocial personality disorder (APD) refers to a condition marked by a habitual
pattern of willingly violating others personal rights, with very little sign of empathy
- conduct disorders have difficulty learning tasks that require decision making and
following of complex rules.
- Reduced activity in the frontal lobes.
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Comorbidity is the presence of two disroders simultaneously, or the presence of a
second disorder that affects the one being treated.
Dissociative experiences because they are characterized by a sense of separation-a
dissociation-between you and your surroundings. Dissociative disorder, a category of mental disorders characterized by a split
between conscious awareness from feelings, cognition, memory, and identity.
- dissociative fugue
- depersonalization disorder
- dissociative amnesia