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Chapter 11

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion 11.1 - Hunger and Eating  The study of motivation concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organisms towards specific goal.  These initiating factors, or motives, include the thoughts, feelings, sensations, and bodily process that lead to goal-directed behaviour.  Homeostasis, the body’s physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal states in response to the outer environment.  These states include physiological needs such as appropriate body temperature as well as indicators of hunger and thirst.  Drives - the physiological triggers that tell us we may be deprived of something and cause us to seek out what is needed, such as food.  Incentives (or goals) the stimuli we seek to reduce the drives such as social approval and companionship, food, water, and other needs. Physiological aspects of hunger  Hunger - the motivation to eat - with a growling stomach.  Satiation - the point in a meal when we are no longer motivated to eat.  The on and off switches involved in hunger can be found in a few regions of the hypothalamus.  Researches have found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamus causes rats to begin to eat; serve “on” switch.  In contrast, ventromedial region of the hypothalamus appears to serve as the “off” switch.  The para-ventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, also signals that it is time to stop eating by inhibiting the lateral hypothalamus.  The hypothalamus also takes on the job of monitoring blood chemistry for indicators of the levels of sugars and hormones involved in energy.  Glucose, a sugar that serves as the primary energy source for the brain and the rest of the body.  Highly specialized neurons called glucostats can detect glucose levels in the fluid outside of the cell.  Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps cells store this circulating glucose for future use.  Ghrelin, s hormone secreted in the stomach that stimulates stomach contractions and appetite.  Another key chemical in regulating hunger is cholecystokinin. Psychological aspects of hunger.  Ordinary sucrose - plain white granulated sugar can stimulate release of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region associated with the reinforcing effects of the substances such as amphetamines and cocaine Tastes, textures, and eating.  While chemical receptors in the mouth and nose are detecting the tastes and smells of food, touch receptors in the mouth are detecting the textures of the food and relaying this information to the orbitofrontal cortex, which in turn contributes info to the overall sensation of eating.  Tube feeling, a technique used with hospitalized patients who cannot chew or swallow on their own. Food variety and eating.  Unit bias, the tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is an appropriate amount to consume. Eating and the social context.  Three main factors: A. Social facilitation: eating more. B. Impression management: eating less. ; minimal eating norm suggests that another aspect of good manners. C. Modeling: eating whatever they eat.  Eating is not just a matter of maintaining homeostasis.  It is best described as a behaviour motivated by biological, social, and individual psychological factors. Disorders of eating Obesity  Obesity is an disorder of positive energy balance in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure.  One problem is that both the drive to eat and the incentive value of food increases with deprivation Anorexia and Bulimia  Anorexia nervosa , an eating disorder that involves (1) self-starvation, (2) intense fear of weight gain and a distorted perception of body image, and (3) a denial of the serious consequences of severely low weight.  Other problems associated with an anorexia include consecutive los of menstrual periods (amenorrhea), and for males a loss of sexual motivation.  Occur during mid and late adolescence  Bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder that is characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge-eating, and purging.  Occur during late adolescence and young adulthood. 11.2 - Sexual Motivation  Libido - the motivation for sexual activity and pleasure. Human sexual behaviour: psychological and biological influences. Psychological measures of sexual motivation.  Alfred Kinsey, began his research on human sexuality by interviewing his students about their sexual histories. Biological measures of Sex.  Participants were monitored with heart rate and blood pressure equipment, as well as with more peculiar devices such as the penile plethysmopgraph, which are designed to measure blood flow to the genitalia in men and women respectively.  The sexual response cycle, describes the phases of physiological change during sexual activity, which comprises four primary stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.  Refractory period, a time period during which erection and orgasm are noy physically possible.  Stimulations of the breasts, nipples, and vaginal areas cause sensory nerves to send signals to the hypothalamus.  The hypothalamus in turn, stimulates the pituitary gland to release a hormone called oxytocin, which plays a role in orgasm and post orgasm physiological. Sexual Dysfunction  In males, this may include erectile dysfunction (ED) - the inability to achieve or maintain an erection.  ED is often caused by cardiovascular problems such as hypertension.  For females, physiological problems may lad to lack of arousal or painful intercourse. Sex and technology  Cybersex - that is the use of the internet and computer equipment for sending sexually explicit images and messages to a partner. Sexual Orientation: Biology and environment  Sexual orientation is a consistent preference for sexual relations with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), same sex (homosexuality), or either sex (bisexuality).  E.g., desire, emotions, identification Sexual orientation and the brain.  Researchers have also been intrigued by findings suggesting that a band of nerve fibers connecting the left and ri
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