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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 11-12

Chapter 11-12 notes

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Steve Joordens

1111 Hunger and EatingMotivation is the psychological and physiological process underlying the initiation of behaviours that direct organisms toward specific goalsThese initiating factors are called motives and lead to thoughts feelings sensations and bodily processes that lead to goal directed behaviourHomeostasis is the bodys physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal status in response to the environmentHumans are highly motivated to form social bondsThis behaviour involves drivesthe physiological triggers that tell us we may be deprived of something and cause us to seek out what is needed such as foodWe also respond to incentivesthe stimuli we seek to reduce the drives such as social approval food water etcHungerStomach growling is a cue for satiationthe point in a meal when we are no longer motivated to eatOn and off switches involved in eating are found in the hypothalamus electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamus in rats causes them to eat the ventromedial region of the hypothalamus is the off switch and damage to this area causes obesityThe paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus turns off eating motivations by inhibiting the lateral hypothalamusHypothalamus monitors blood chemistry for indicators of sugars and hormonesGlucostats monitor glucose levels when levels drop they signal the hypothalamus to get hungryInsulin secreted by the pancreas helps cells store glucoseAs insulin levels rise hunger decreases but so do glucose levels causing you to be hungry againGhrelin stimulates stomach contractions and appetite and is released by the hypothalamus decreases appetiteCholecystokininCCK communicated to the hypothalamus that its time to stop eating as the intestines expandSugar sucrose is drug like because it releases neurotransmitters like dopamine to the nucleus accumbens the same area thats stimulated when you take cocaine and amphetamines Humans have evolved to have a strong preference for fat2We may crave fat because of fat receptors on the tongue which send messages to the brain and stimulate the release of endorphins and dopamineInfo about textures of food is relayed to the orbitofrontal cortexThe pleasure of food is motivation enough to eat even if we do not actually need the nutrientsIf you crave food dont ignore it but instead try focusing on something that requires active visualspatial thought because imagery can help you deal with cravings you can also imagine the taste of the food you crave or you can walk your fingers across your foreheadParticipants with a bottomless bowl are 70 more than ones without one and did not feel any more satiated nor did they believe they had eaten any more than the individuals in the control groupUnit bias is the tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is and appropriate amount to consume individually wrapped bananasThe presence of other people motivates us to eatdepends on the situationSocial facilitation Eating more times spent at the table socializing increases hunger or hosts my encourage guests to eat moreImpression management eating less sometimes people selfconsciously control their behaviour so that others will see them in a certain way good manners chewing with mouth closedModeling eating whatever they eat if everyone eats slowly so will youDisordersObesity is a disorder of positive energy balance in which energy intake exceeds expenditureIn 2008 49 states out of 50 had 20 prevalence of obesityCould be because of all the advertising gimmicks encouraging short term weight lossCould be hard to lose weight because the drive to eat and the incentive value of food increase with deprivationGirls who diet are heavier later in lifeObese people have an increased sensitivity to food and food related cuesObese people have a higher metabolic activity in the regions of the brain connected to the mouth lips and tongue and ore intense rewards when it comes to foodDoes not mean increased sensitivity leads to obesity or vice versa
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