Textbook Notes (368,588)
Canada (161,988)
Psychology (9,696)
PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 10


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Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 10Life Span DevelopmentMethods Concepts and Prenatal Developmentbabies cry with an accent French babies cry with rising melody while German babies are opposite langauge developmet is well underway before birthDevelopmental psychology the study of change and stability of human physical cognitive social and behavioural characteristics across the life spanMeasuring Developmental Trends Methods and PatternsMethods of Measuring DevelopmentCrosssectional desgin is used to measure and compare samples of people at different ages at agiven point in time cohort effects are consequences of being born in a particular year or narrow range of years factors include societal nutritional medicalLongitudinal design follows the development of the same set of individuals through time costly and time consuming Issue of attrition occurs when participants stop returning mail or phone calls become ineligible or otherwise quit participatingResearch can help determine what is normal for a given agePatterns of Development Stages and Continuityrapid changes ie Growth spurts are explained by a model that views development as a progression of abrupt transitions in physical or mental skills followed by slower more gradual change stagesstages are more than increases in speed size or amount they also represent a fundamental shift in the type of abilities adults change slowersteadier called continuous changeif a person is particularly sensitive and attentive to the stimulation then it facilitates behavioural and cognitive growthThe Importance of Sensitive PeriodsSensitive period is a window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environment stimulation is needed for normal developmentfound in humans and other species for abilities such as depth perception balance and recognition of parentsPrenatal to Newborns From one Cell to BillionsFertilization and GestationGestation genetics and environment begin to shape an individual throughout pregnancyGerminal stage is the first phase of prenatal development and spans from conception to two weeks It all beings at fertilization with the formation of a zygote a cell formed by the fusion of a sperm and an ovum egg cell Zygote divides 248etc as it develops we can measure its developmental progress by its gestational age the estimated time since fertilization At gestational age 6 it becomes a blastocyst containing 50150 nonspecialized cells It uses energy and resources provided by ovum Moves through fallopian tubes and becomes implanted in uterus Then it divides again one group develops into an embryo and another forms the placenta The embryonic stagespans weeks 28 during which the embryo begins developing major physical structures such as the heart and nervous system as well as the beginning of arms legs hands and feet The fetal stage spans weeks 8birth during which time is skeletal organ and nervous systems become more developed and specialized muscles develop Fetal Brain Developmentbrain can be seen during embryonic stage between 23 weeks of gestation
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