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PSYA02H3 (962)
Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 11 MOTIVATION AND EMOTIONHunger and Eatingfast food environment is not just about getting a quick meal but speeds up other aspects of our thinking and behaviour as wellMotivation concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviours that direct organisms toward specific goals factors include the thoughts feelings sensations and bodily processes that lead to goaldirected behaviourHomeostasis the bodys physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal states in response to the outer environmentThirst when bodily water levels falls below normal cells release chemical compounds that maintain the structure and fluid levels of cells Receptors in the body respond to the increased concentrations of these compounds as well as to the lower water volume and send messages to the brain which in turn motivate us to seek water thereby maintaining homeostasis Motives consisting of 2 main parts 1Drives the psychological triggers that tell us we may be deprived of something and cause us to seek out what is needed such as food2Incentives goals the stimuli we seek to reduce the drives such as social approval and companionship food water etc Physiological Aspects of HungerSatiation the point in a meal when we are no longer motivated to eatonoff switch of hunger found in few regions of hypothalamusresearchers found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamus causes rats to begin to eat thus ON SWITCHthe ventromedial region of the hypothalamus appears to be the OFF SWITCH damage to this leads to obesity in lab animalsthe paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus signals that it is time to stop eating by inhibiting the lateral hypothalamushypothalamus takes on job of monitoring blood chemistry for indicators of the levels of sugars and hormones involved in energyit detects the changes in level of glucose a sugar that serves as a primary energy source for the brain and the rest of the bodyhighly specialized neurons called glucostats can detect glucose levels in fluid outside of the cell when glucose levels are low glucostats signal the hypothalamus which increases hungerInsulin a hormone secreted by the pancreas helps cells store this circulating glucose for future useinsulin level rises as food is consumed hunger decreases glucose levels decrease too then hunger againGhrelin a hormone secreted in the stomach that stimulates stomach contractions and appetite it is also secreted by the hypothalamus where it functions to decrease appetiteCholecystokinin CCK a chemical which regulates hunger as intestines expand neurons release CCK which communicates with the hypothalamus that it is time to stop eatingPhysiological Aspects of HungerSugar fix a term that seems to imply that addiction to candy bars is comparable to an addiction to a drug like heroinSugar and some addictive drugs share a few similarities ordinary sucrose a plain white granulated sugar can stimulate release of the neurotransmitter associated with the reinforcing effects of substances such as amphetamines and cocaine eating is motivated by other psychological factors that include physical qualities of food such as flavour and texture as well as availability of food the social setting and cravingsTastes Textures and Eating
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