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Chapter 9-16


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Steve Joordens

Chapter 9Intelligence Aptitude And Cognitive Abilities 91Measuring Aptitude and Intelligence Intelligence ability to understand reason think and cognitively adapt to and overcome obstacles Achievement and Aptitude Achievement TestAptitude TestDefinitionmeasure knowledge and thinking designed to measure an individuals skills that an individual has potential to perform well on a specific acquiredgained range of tasksExample Small scalequizzes and tests taken College entrance exams such as the in school are achievement tests SATLarge scalestatewide and nationwide achievement tests Key Measures current abilities Predicts future performance Difference Constructing and Evaluating Tests Psychometrics the measurement of psychological traits and abilitiespersonality attitudes and intelligenceItems on tests and quizzes Questionnaires Two important concepts are reliability and validity Validity ReliabilityDefinitionDegree to which a test actually Degree to which a test produces measures the trait or ability it claims to consistent results Testretest reliability measure Predictive validity is the means that you do the test again to see degree to which a test predicts future if it reliable performanceExampleHow do we know SAT is really Students who take the SAT a second measuring the ability to succeed in time increase their score by a little collegehence the test is not very reliable because it does not produce consistent results OtherCorrelation between SAT scores and college GPA becomes even weaker after students complete their first year or university Standardization and NormsStandardized Tests is a test that has a set of questions or problems that are administered and scored in a uniform way across large number of individuals Allows for comparison across individualsa critical component of testing Norms statistics that allow individuals to be evaluated to a typical or standard curveFor most tests the norm is 100 Standard Deviation measures variability around a mean Think of it as average distance from the average Percentile Rank percentage of scores below a certain point Score of 10 has a percentile rand of 50 meaning 50 of the population scores below this levelNorm is established by giving the test to lots of people and then calculating the mean and standard deviationTest normed with one set of people may not be applicable to another set of peopleTest will be renormed every 10 years to ensure that the mean and standard deviation are still the samePSYCHThe NFL Draft The Wonderlic test consisting of 50 questions to be answered in 12 minutes is given to all football players Wonderlic test is generallya poor aptitude test for performance in the NFL91aQuick Quiz1B2B3C4D5A6ACApproaches to Intelligence Testing There are several ways that intelligence can be measured StandfordBinet TestThey developed a method for assessing childrens academic achievements at schoolThey made an achievement test The test measured mental age Mental Age average or typical test score for a specific chronological age rather than intelligenceA 7 year old with mental age of 7 would be considered average People thought the test measured the innate genetic intelligence Binet disagreed with this and believed it was an achievement test not a measure of innate capacityWilliam Stern developed intelligence quotient Intelligence Quotient IQ a measurement in which the mental age of an individual is divided by the persons chronological age and then multiplied by 100 10 year old child with a mental age of 7 would have an IQ of 71010070 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Most commonly used intelligence test used on adolescnets and adults The WAIS gives a full scale IQ and breaks intelligence into GAI General Ability Index and CPI Cognitive Proficiency IndexGAIverbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning CPIbased on working memory and processing speed subtests Ravens Progressive Matrices Many psychologists thought that intelligence is universal human quality independent of culture and language Person should not be penalized on an intelligence test if he or she did not have an English vocabulary or could not understand the questionRavens Progressive Matrices intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are intended not to be bound to a particular language or culture Measures the extent to which test takers can see patterns in the shapes and colors within matrix and then determine which shape or color would complete the pattern This does not require knowledge of a language or specific culture According to Raven deductive reasoning ability to identify and extract important information and reproductive reasoning applying it to new situations is very important for intelligent behavior Measuring Perception and MemoryGalton thought his family was genetically gifted He tried to scienfically measure intelligence Anthropometrics method of measuring physical and mental variation in humansHis perceptual tests did not correlate with eminence Now people focus on working memory rather than perceptual testsThese tests test how well a person can hold instructions and information in moenory while completing problem solving task Tests of perception and memory take a biologically oriented approach to measuring intelligence This means that looking at the brain is also very important aspect Working the Scientific Model Brain Size and Intelligence
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