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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Study Guide

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Oren Amitay

Chapter 10 Language Chapter Outline 1. Speech and Comprehension -language allows us to communicate perceptions, thoughts, and memories -semantics are the meanings of the words -syntax is specific rule that words are arranged in sentences -context helps identifying individual words 2. Reading -reading is achieved by two processes: 1) whole-word recognition and 2) decoding the sounds -brain damage produces acquired dyslexia, which disrupts the processes -developmental dyslexia is caused by damage in left hemisphere -semantic priming is a method that neural circuits use to recognize and understand spoken and written words 3. Language Acquisition by Children -language is social behaviour -baby use movements, facial expressions, and sounds to communicate -in two-word stage, children begin to combine words creatively say things they have never heard (experimentation) -infants learn how to communicate verbally from adults and older children the simple concise language that adults and older children use to communicate with infant is known was child-directed speech -some researchers believe that brain contains a language acquisition device that already contains universal rules of grammar -humans were the only species that have language -language is also used as a tool to remember and think -use language to: 1) encode information in memory verbally (chapter 8) 2) extend long-term memory for information by writing notes 3) think complex and abstract issue by encoding them as words and manipulate words according to logical rules -linguists study rules of language, describe the precise structure of words in speech and writing -psycholinguist study verbal behaviour more concerned with human cognition than rules that describe language interested in how children learn to speak from interaction with adults study how adults use language and how verbal abilities interact with cognitive abilities 1. Speech and Comprehension Perception of Speech -speech does not come to us in a series of individual words www.notesolution.com-to understand speech, we must extract words from a stream of speech Recognition of Speech Sounds -auditory system recognizes patterns of speech instead of only sounds -temporal lobe on the auditory cortex shows large difference in response when human vocalizations (both speech and non-speech) are heard -both left and right hemispheres showed contrast between vocalizations and other natural sounds -a greater contrast in response is observed in the left hemisphere suggests that left hemisphere plays a larger role in analyzing detailed information of speech -analysis of speech begins with its elements (phoneme) -phonemes are elements of speech smallest unit of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word -voice-onset time is the delay between initial sound of a consonant and the vibration of vocal cords -voicing is the vibration of vocal cords -phonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of sensory differences the process occurs in both hemispheres but left auditory cortex specializes in recognizing special aspects of speech -Ganong found that perception of phoneme is affected by sounds that follow it -we recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemes -phonemes are combined to form morpheme -morphemes are the smallest units of meaning in language -syntax determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemes -bound morphemes cannot stand by themselves, i.e., -est in fastest must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning Recognition of Words in Continuous Speech: The Importance of Learning and Context -special electrical signal, called N100 wave, appears shortly after people hear an intelligible word -Sanders found that when people learned nonsense sounds as words, people show N100 response as well -we are able to recognize sounds even in a speech with sloppy pronunciation because of context -context affects perception of words through top-down processing Understanding the Meaning of Speech Syntax -syntax is grammar and syntactical rules www.notesolution.com
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