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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Chapter 11 Intelligence and Thinking Chapter Outline of Theories of Intelligence -Spearmans two-factor theory states that intelligence consists of general factor and specific task- related factors -Sternbergs triarchic theory is example of information processing approach emphasizes importance of adaptive behaviour in a natural environment -Gardners theory emphasizes categories of aptitudes and skills (both physical and cognitive) Intelligence Testing -Binet developed a series of tests, Stanford-Binet Scale used to identify children that need special attention -Binet and Simon developed the concept of norms with which to compare a particular individual also formulate mental age -Wechsler developed intelligence test for adults (WAIS) and children (WISC) -reliability of modern intelligence tests is excellent -their validity is difficult to assess because there is no single criterion of intelligence -intelligence tests are used to identify special student so they can benefit from appropriate educational programs -intelligence test may be abused if teachers expect little from students labelled as unintelligent fail to encourage them to achieve the most The Roles of Heredity and Environment -variability in intellectual abilities is produced by three sources: 1) environmental variability, 2) genetic variability, 3) interaction between the two -environmental variability is influenced by factors that affect prenatal development and physical development during childhood sources of formal education and intellectual stimulation can have a factor -genetic variability affects structure and development of brain affect resistance to diseases -environmental factors play a larger role than hereditary factors in intelligence Thinking -psychologists interested in thinking process have studied formation and recognition of concepts, deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and problem solving -concepts exist at basic, subordinate, and superordinate level -deductive reasoning consists of applying general principles to specific instances requires ability to construct and manipulate mental models -inductive reasoning is inferring general principles from facts people use hypothesis to develop principles -problem solving requires concept of goal and evaluation of behaviours that bring us closer to the final goal -psychologists define intelligence as ability to learn and remember information www.notesolution.com to recognize concepts and their relations to apply information to their own behaviour in adaptive way -definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements -study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches: 1) differential approach, 2) developmental approach, 3) information processing -differential approach identifies and measures individual differences in ability to solve problems, skills that are used in classroom tests that ask people to define words, explain proverbs, solve arithmetic problem, discover similarities in shapes and patterns -developmental approach test how people learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world -information processing approach focuses on skills people use to think and solve problems -Sternbergs theory of successful intelligence focuses one ability to analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses Theories of Intelligence -differential approach investigates nature of intelligence by studying how people differ of tests of intellectual abilities -IQ scores is a single number score of intelligence test although intelligence test provides a single score, intelligence is not a single, general characteristic -some intellectual abilities are independent of one another a person that does well in verbal ability can do bad in math Spearmans Two-Factor Theory -Spearman believed that performance of intelligence test is determined by two factors: 1) general factor (g), 2) specific factor to a particular test (s) -general factor comprises three qualitative principles: 1) apprehension of experience, 2) eduction of relations, 3) eduction of correlates -eduction is process of figuring out from given facts -solving analogies requires all three principles -apprehension of experience is ability to perceiver and understand what we perceive -eduction of relation is ability to perceive relation -eduction of correlates is ability to apply a rule in one case to a similar case -different tests that are assigned to measure a particular type of ability each test is said to be unrelated to scores of another test so correlation among the tests is approximately zero -tests with different form that measure a single ability, their scores are perfectly related, intercorrelations are close to 1 -intercorrelations between a group of tests of intellectual abilities are neither zero nor one most of the tests are moderately correlated, range from 0.3 to 0.7 www.notesolution.com Evidence from Factor Analysis -Spearman and Pearson developed statistical procedure known as factor analysis allow researchers to identify commonalities among group of tests -common factors are abilities that affect peoples performance on more than one test -if persons scores on several tests correlate well with one another, then the tests measure the same factor -factor analysis determines which sets of tests form groups -factor loading is the value of each factor has on the test somewhat like correlation coefficient that express the degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factor -factor analysis provides cues about nature of intelligence, but cannot provide a theory of intelligence cannot reveal other abilities that are not measured by the tests it is used to investigate -factors of different abilities are called general intelligence -Thurstone also performed factor analysis -identified seven factors: verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed -thought that his analysis contradicted Spearmans general factor idea -Eysenck suggested that second factor analysis could be performed on Thurstones factors if a common factor is found among the factors, Spearmans general factor would receive support -if Thurstones seven factors have a second-order factor in common, the factor is conceived as general intelligence -Cattell performed a second-order factor analysis and found two major factors: 1) fluid intelligence (gf and 2) crystallized intelligence (g c -fluid intelligence is culture-free task ability to see relations among objects and ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items native capacity for intellectual performance potential ability to learn and solve problems -crystallized intelligence is tasks that require people to have learned information from their culture, like vocabulary and information learned in schools crystallized intelligence is what a person has accomplished through the use of fluid intelligence, what a person has learned -but Horn believes that both factors are learned and based to a degree on heredity fluid intelligence is based on casual learning crystallized intelligence is based on cultural, school learning www.notesolution.com -if two people have the same experiences, the one with greater fluid intelligence will develop greater crystallized intelligence -person with high fluid intelligence in an intellectually poor environment will develop a poor crystallized intelligence An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence -Sternberg believed degree of success is affected by how people effectively analyze and manage their combination of strengths and weaknesses -developed the triarchic theory of intelligence that derives from information processing approach consists of three aspects of intelligence: 1) analytic, 2) creative, 3) practical -all three aspects of intelligence together are known as successful intelligence -successful intelligence is the ability to 1) analyze ones strengths and weaknesses, 2) use strengths to greatest advantage, 3) minimize impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them -analytic intelligence consists of how people plan and execute tasks verbal ability and deductive reasoning are examples of analytic intelligence analytic intelligence serves three functions: 1) metacomponents (transcending components), 2) performance component, 3) knowledge acquisition component -metacomponents are process people use to decide the nature of the problem, select a strategy and allocate resources good reader know how to allocate time to extract information from each paragraph -performance component is the process used to perform the task, like word recognition and working memory -knowledge acquisition component is the process used to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant information and integrating it with previous knowledge -creative intelligence is the ability to deal effectively with new problem and to solve familiar problem automatically -person with high creative intelligence analyze situation and bring mental resources better, even if he has never encountered the problem -similar problems can be solved without much though, freeing mental resources for more demanding work -Sternberg paralleled this distinction with distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence fluid intelligence requires novel approaches -crystallized intelligence requires mental processes that have come automatic -Sternberg and Lubart believed that creative people can tolerate criticism or initial rejection of their new ideas -practical intelligence is reflection of behaviours that were subject to natural selection in evolution -has three forms: 1) adaptation, 2) selection, 3) shaping -adaptation is fitting oneself in the environment by developing useful skills and behaviours -adaptation ta
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