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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Chapter 12 Lifespan Development Chapter Outline Prenatal Development -mothers diet can affect fetuss development -toxins can cause physical and cognitive defects Physical and perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood -timing and experience are two key elements in normal motor and perceptual development -for normal development to occur, a child must encounter stimulation from environment in specific time interval -if stimulation does not occur, normal development is impeded Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood -Piaget thought a child undergoes four intellectual changes that deal with changes in nervous system and experience -Vygotsky thought a childs cognitive development is influenced by sociocultural variables, especially language -information processing models focuses on how brain maturation affects cognitive processes Social Development in Infancy and Childhood -attachment is social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver Development of Gender Roles -evolution has shaped differences in brain development for males and females -males have better spatial abilities -females have better communication skills -socialization processes, like parenting shaped gender-appropriate behaviour Moral Development -Piaget stated that people undergo two stages of moral development -first stage is marked by egocentrism and adherence to rules -second stage is marked by empathy -Kohlberg said there are three stages in moral development: 1) externally defining morality, 2) considering how the social system relates to morality, 3) understanding the principles on which moral rules are based Adolescence -begins with sexual maturation, marked with changes in social behaviour and ability to reason -female build relationships based on trust -males seek social support in becoming more independent -forming an identity is a key aspect of social development www.notesolution.comAdulthood and Old Age -physical abilities peak in early adulthood and decline gradually afterwards -older adults perform worse on abstract reasoning, but better on general knowledge and abilities related to experience -cross-sectional study is used to compare individuals of different ages simultaneously more convenient to carry out avoid problems associated with repeatedly testing or observing the same individuals -longitudinal study compares observation of the same individuals at different times of their lives repeat the test on the same children at different age Prenatal Development -prenatal period lasts for nine months between conception and birth -length of normal pregnancy is 266 days, or 38 weeks -X chromosome inactivation is when one of the two X chromosomes of women is silenced early in development most of its genes do not synthesize the proteins they normally would limits total amount of proteins produced by genes located on the X chromosome without this limit, metabolism of female would be different from male only one of the parents chromosome is selected to be active example of epigenetic modification, it is not due to alterations of DNA sequence -epigenetic modification form a second factor of early development -cells chemical environment moderates the expression of its genetic code -genetic information remains the same throughout development, reproducing cells become specialized Stage of Prenatal Development -conception is union of egg and sperm -zygotes stage lasts about two weeks single cell divides many times and internal organ begin to form cells are arranged in two layers, one for skin, hair, nervous system, and sensory organs and the other for digestive, respiratory systems, and glands later in this stage, third layer of cells appear and develop into muscles and circulatory and excretory systems -embryonic stage begins at two weeks and ends about eight weeks after conception development occurs at rapid pace at the end of the stage, major feature that define human body can be seen embryo can react reflexively to stimulation most susceptible to external chemical influences, like alcohol, drugs, toxins, rubella -these substances are teratogens (malformation) and they can cause birth defects www.notesolution.com
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