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PSYA02H3 (931)
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PSYA02 Ch 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Ch 10 Language Language flexible systems that use symbols to express many meaningsIts a social behvr Psycholinguistics a branch of psych devoted to the study of verbal bhvr The auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves Phonemes the smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word The elements of speech Discrimination among phonemes vary f auditory preferences to types of auditory training programs affecting readingphonemic awareness Voiceonset time the delay btw the initial sound of a consonant such as the puffing sound of the phoneme pthe onset of vibration of the vocal cords Phonemic discrimination begin w auditory processing of the sensory differences in both hemispheres but the left auditory cortex specializes in recognizing special aspects of speech We recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemes Phonemes are combined to form morphemes the smallest unit of meaning in language The N100 wave is an electrical sign that appears after ppl hear the onset of a word Context affects the perception of words through topdown processing Ie saying I screama snack shop on the beach will sound like ice cream Syntactical rule a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases clausessentences Theyre learned implicitly Syntactical cues are signaled by word order tells us who does what to whom word class grammatical categories noun pronoun verb adjective functioncontent words affixes word meaningsprosody Function word a preposition article or other word that convey little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure a the to some and but whenExpress the relations btw content wordsthus are very important syntactical cuesContent word a noun verb adjective or adverb that expresses meaning apple rug went caught heavy sadlyAffixes a sound or group of letter that is added to the beginning of a word prefix or to its end suffixAlters grammatical function Semantics the meaningsand the study of the meanings represented by wordsProvides hints to the syntax of a sentenceProdosy the use of changes in intonationemphasis stress rhythm changes in pitch to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particualr words an important means of communication of emotion Deep structure the essential meaning of a sentence wo regard to the grammatical features surface structure of the sentence that are needed to express it in wordsSurface structure the grammatical features of a sentence Slip of the tongue gives clues about the way a sentences deep structure can be transformed into a particular surface structureIe Rose always date shranks Conduction aphasia is a language disorder where one has difficultly repeating words but can understand themThey can retain deep structure but not surface structure Script the characteristics events rules that are typical of a particular situation assists w
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