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PSYA02 Ch 14

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John Bassili

PSYA02 Ch 14 PersonalityPersonality a particular pattern of bhvr and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person f anotherThe theory of individual differences in personality was proposed by Hippocrates and later Galen bc of ancient medical beliefs where the body contains 4 fluids and ones disposition was determined by the predominance of one of the 4 humours1 Choleric yellow bile bad tempered and irritable 2 Melancholic black bile gloomy and pessimistic 3 Phlegmatic phlegm sluggish calm unexcitable 4 Sanguine blood cheerful passionatePersonality types diff categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as dvlptal experiences or physical characteristics Personality trait an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of bhvr in a variety of situations Allport was the first psychologist to search for the basic core of personality traits and identified words that described stable personality characteristics to see how ppl think about themselves and others Traits are neuropsychological properties that lead to bhvrl consistency over time and contexts by producing functional similarity in the way ppl interpret and experience events that guide their feelings thought and bhvr Cardinal trait characterizes a strong unifying influence on a persons bhvr Hitlers relentless exercise of oppressive powerCentral trait are less singular in their influence than cardinal traits but capture important characteristics of an individual honestySecondary trait characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of bhvr Cattell identified 171 adjectives that made up surface trait those that refer to observable bhvrs and w factor analysis identified 16 personality factors that were referred to as source trait that were the cornerstones upon which personality is built Eysenck dvlpd a personality theory of 3 factors that were bipolar dimensions extroversion neuroticism and psychoticismHe emphasizes the biological nature of personality Extroversion the tendency to seek the company of other ppl to be spontaneous and to engage in conversation and other social bhvrs w themIntroversion the tendency to avoid the company of other ppl to be inhibited and cautious shynessNeuroticism the tendency to be anxious worried and full of guiltEmotional stability the tendency to be relaxed andpeace w oneselfPsychoticism the tendency to be aggressive egocentric and antisocialSelfcontrol the tendency to be kind considerate and obedient of laws and rulesFivefactor model a theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions openness conscientiousness extroversion agreeableness neuroticism This theory was dvlpd using factor analyses of ratings of the words ppl use to describe personality characteristics Strong connection to heritability Neuroticism Extraversion and Openness Personality Inventory NEOPIR the instrument used to measure the elements described in the 5factor model OCEAN
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