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John Bassili (149)

PSYA02 Ch 17

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

PSYA02 Ch 17 Nature and Causes of Psychological DisordersThe causes of psychological problems are a complex interaction btwn ones individual genotype brain chemistry and childhood envt in the etiology the causationEtiology the causes or origins of a disorder Less severe psychological disorders are influenced by envt factors such as stressors unhealthy family interactions or ones perception of these factors A classification system of psychological disorders was first recognized by Emil Kraepelin Psychologists stress that that the most important feature of a psychological disorder is not whether ones bhvr is abnormal but whether its maladaptive Psychological disorders are the interaction of hereditary cognitive and envt factorsThe Psychodynamic perspective According to Freud psychological disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the id ego and superego conflicts would be to express sexual or aggressive impulses or attempts to cope w external dangers and traumatic experiences the conflict becomes so severe that the minds defence mechanisms cant produce a resolution thats adequate for mental health and so the defence mechanisms themselves distort reality or the person begins to function in some areas of life characteristic of an earlier developmental stage Consequent psychological disorders are extreme anxiety depression obsessive thoughts compulsive bhvr distorted perceptions thinking and paralysis or blindnessThe Medical perspective According to Hippocrates mental illness is from the excesses of 4 humours black bile yellow bile blood and phlegm which led to emotional problemsPsychological disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous systemThe CognitiveBhvral perspective psychological disorders are learned maladaptive bhvr patterns that can best be understood by focusing on envt factors and a persons perception of those factorsHumanistic perspective proper personality dvlpt occurs when ppl experience unconditional positive regard so thus psychological disorders arise when ppl perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others and so they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others reactions to he and they lack confidence in their ability and have no stable internal value of themselvesThe Sociocultural perspective cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which ppl interpret their own bhvrs as normal or abnormal psychological disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain culturesa phenomenon called culturebound syndromes The Biopsychosocial perspective a view that the causes of psychological disorders can be best understood in terms of the interaction of biological psychological and social factors Diathesisstress model a causal account of psychological disorders based on the idea that psychological disorders dvlp when a person possess a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed their abilities to come w them The combo of a persons genes and early learning experiences may produce predispositions diatheses for a variety of psychological disorders
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