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PSYA02 Ch 13

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John Bassili

PSYA02 Ch 13 MotivationEmotionMotivation a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature strength and persistence of a persons bhvr Driving force that moves us to a particular action 3 categories of motivated bhvrs eating sexual bhvr and aggression The proactive sense of motivation is similar to reinforcementWe are motivated to perform a bhvr to gain a reinforcer or to avoid an aversive event Regulatory bhvr a bhvr that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal thus restoring the condt of homeostasis eating drinking shiveringHomeostasis the process by which important physiological characteristics body temp and blood pressure are regulated so that they remaintheir optimum level An imbalance motivates us bc they cause us to perform the appropriate regulatory bhvrsA regulatory system has 4 featuresSystem variable the variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism temperature in a heating systemSet point the optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism The set point for human body temp recorded orally is 37 degrees Celsius Detector in a regulatory process a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates f its set point Correctional mechanism in a regulatory process the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set pointNegative feedback a process whereby the effect produced by an actions serves to diminishterminate that action regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops the rise in room temp causes the thermostat to turn the heater off Drive reduction hypothesis the hypothesis that a drive resulting f physiological needdeprivation produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated bhvrs Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcingDrive a condt often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes an organisms bhvr Drive is immeasurable though The experiences we really want to repeat the ones we find reinforcing are those that increase rather than decrease our level of arousal sex Electrical brain stimulation activates the reinforcement system the system strengthens the connection btw the neural circuit that detects a stimulus and the neural circuit that controls the bhvr as a result Reinforcing stimuli releases dopamine Optimum level hypothesis organisms will perform bhvr that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level when arousal level too highless stimulation is reinforced when arousal too lowmore stimulation is desired Diversive exploration is a response to boredom that increases the diversity of the stimuli the organism tries to come in contact w Specific exploration is a response to overstimulation a specific needlack of water that leads to the needed item thereby decreasing the organisms drive level Perseverance the tendency to continue to perform a bhvr even when it is not being reinforced
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