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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 note!

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Steve Joordens

chapter 10 notes psychology y psycholinguistics a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviours y speech does not come to us as a series of individual words we must extract the words from a stream of speech y like our ability to recognize faces visually the auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves y Using fMRI scans Belin Zatorre and Ahad found that some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizationboth speech and nonspeech than when they heard only natural sounds Regions in which there was a large difference were located in the temporal love on the auditory cortex y when it comes to analyzing detailed information of speech the left hemisphere plays a larger role this is was discovered by belin zatorre and ahad y Phonemes are the element of speech the smallest units of sounds that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word The minimum unit of sounds that conveys meaning in a particular language such as p y Voiceonset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonantsuch as the puffing sound of the phoneme p and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords y the distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants permits us todistinguish between p and b between k and g and between t and d y region of the left auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing the special aspect of speech y Scott Blank Rosen and Wise identified some of these regions using PET scans They played recordings of either natural speech speech that was computerdistorted and unintelligible but contained the phonemic complexity of the sounds or speech that was intelligible but lacked the normal frequencies of human speakers Some areas responded to both natural and unintelligible speech while other responded only to speech what was intelligible even if it was highly distorted yGanong found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it He used a computer to synthesize a novel sound that fell between those of the phonemes g and k When the sound was followed by ift the participants heard the word gift but when it was followed by iss they heard kiss These results suggest that we recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemes y Morphemes Phonemes are combined to form Morphemes which are the smallest units of meaning in language The syntax of a particular language determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemes For example the word fastest contains two morphemes fast which is a free morphemes because it can stand on its own and still have meaning and ist which is a bound morpheme Bound morphemes cannot stand on their own and must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning y MacNevin and Besner found that morphemic priming affects how well people perform on the Stroop test which is the experiment of words printed or displayed in a different color from the yellow is printed in blue color it actually names so the word
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