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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 10LanguageMost species can communicate with one another but that doesnt mean they have language abilitiesChimps were taught to sign and this helped them communicate and acquire language but through their mouths it was impossible because they do not possess the right control over their tongue and palate to formulate languageThe conclusion they got from the chimp study is that to having true verbal ability is a social behaviorIt is used as a tool to remember and think because we encode information verbally and for long termmemory extension we can write notes and look over them laterIt allows for complexabstract thinking because it is transformed into words and then manipulated according to rulesLinguist study the rules of language and what we do when we speak or writePsycholinguistics a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behavior is concerned with human cognition rather than rules that describe languageinterested in language acquisition in children How verbal behavior developshow children learn speech from their interaction with adultsHow adults use languageHow verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilitiesSpeech and ComprehensionIt is an advantage to our species the fact that we have verbal behaviorlistening and reading helps us learn from others talking and writing helps us share our experienceWe can request thingsbehaviors from people that benefit usWe can give information to people to change their behavior in ways that benefit usthemPerception of SpeechSpeaking a series of sounds in a continuous stream with pauses and stress differencesWriting we write sentences as a set of words with spaces between them How we say sentencesread string of soundsemphasizing some and not othersraising the pitch over othersMaintain a regular rhythmic pattern of stressWe must extract the words from a stream of speech and not the other way aroundRecognition of speech soundsHuman vocalizations are distinct from the other noisessounds that we hearWe can filter out the nonspeech sounds despite the fact that the underlying sounds of speech vary according to the sounds that precede and follow themThe auditory system recognizes the the patterns of underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselvesfMRI helps with better understanding of language in the brain Some regions responded more when they heard human vocalization rather than natural noisessounds The difference was the temporal lobe on the auditory cortexBoth sides of the brain showed the contrast with human vocalization and natural sounds however when it came to scrambled up speech the left hemisphere showed a greater contrast response meaning the analysis of speech is done in the left hemispherePhonemes these are elements of speech which are the smallest units of sounds that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word pin is pin they are all phonemesA couple of studies have been done for instance auditory preferences in autistic children and types of auditory training programs affecting reading and phonemic awarenessA detectable distinction includesVoiceonset time VOTthe delay bw the initial consonant sound and the onset of vibration of the vocal cordsVoicing has to do with vibrations of the vocal cords Something is voiced when the vocal cords vibrate and voiceless when they dontfor instance p and b one is voiced the other is voicelessp but using the example of pah is voiceless because there is puff of air that comes out then a delay then slight vibration from the restb using the example of bah is voiced because there is vibration when the b sound comes out initiallyPhonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences and it occurs in both hemispheresLeft hemisphere deals with specialized aspects of speech using PET scans they were identified some areas responded to both natural and unintelligible speech while others responded only to speech that was intelligible even if it was highly distortedPerception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it They used a computer to generate a mixture of k and g and they found out that is ift followed it was a g gift and if iss followed it was a k kisswe recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemesMorphemes the smallest unit of meaning in language the syntax determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemesThe word fastest has 2 morphemesfastfree morpheme aka stands on it ownestbound morpheme aka has to be connected to another to make senseRecognition of Words in Continuous speechThe importance of leaning and context
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