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Psychology (9,688)
PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes from Text and Lecture Slides

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYA02Winter2012 Chapter 10 Language o Example Washoe a female Chimp learned sign language and over 130 signswas able to string 23 word sentences to communicate her needs and desires to other people and even other animalso Languages flexible systems that use symbolso Most species communicate with one anotherdoes not mean they have language o Example insectsa female moth that is ready to mate releases a chemical that will bring male moths from miles away o Conclusion from teaching primates languagetrue verbal ability is a social behaviour o Language enables us to think of very complex and abstract issues by encoding them as words and then manipulating the words according to logical rules o Psycholinguistics a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour o They are interested in how children aquire language how verbal behaviour develops and how children learn to speak from their interactions with adults Speech and Comprehension Perception of Speech o When we speak to someone we produce a series of sounds in a continuous stream punctuated by pauses and modulated by stress and changes in pitch o Speech does not come to us as a series of individual wordswe must extract the words from a stream of speech o The auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselveswe can recognize individuals from the sounds of their speech and filter out sounds that are non speech like chuckles and coughs oBelinm Zatirre and Ahad studied fMRI scans that show that regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizations than when they heard only natural soundslarge difference in the temporal lobe on the auditory cortexthe auditory area on the left hemisphere showed a greater contrast in responsesuggests that the left hemisphere plays a greater role in speech o Phoneme the minimum unit of sounds that conveys meaning in a particular language such as p o Phonemes are the elements of speech the smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word o Voiceonset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords o The distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants permits us to distinguish between p and b k and g and between t and d o When you say pabuild up pressure in your mouth and when you open it a puff of air comes out the ah sound does not occur immediately after because the increased pressure stops air from leaving your lungs for a brief amount of time therefore your vocal chords do not vibrate until air from the lungs passes through them which does not occur immediately o When you say ba your vocal cords start vibrating as soon as you open your mouth o The delay between the vocal cord vibration between pa and ba is only of 006secondso Scott Blank Rosen and Wise identified some of the areas of the left auditory cortex which specialize in recognizing special aspects of speech using PET scans 1
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