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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Notes

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Steve Joordens

PSYA02Winter2012 Chapter 11 Intelligence and Thinkingo Intelligence the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information to recognize concepts and their relations and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way o Intelligence is defined differently in different cultures depending on the set of skills required in the specific cultural context to survive and excelo Differential approach an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problemstest of skills important in the classroomo Developmental approach an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive manipulate and think about the worldo Information processing approach an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problemsTheories of Intelligenceo Some intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another and there is no one way to test a person and decide how intelligent they are IQ test is not enoughso are they independent of one another or is there one general factor that influences all Spearmans TwoFactor Theory o Spearman proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by 2 factors the g factor which is the general factor and the s factor which is the specific factor to the particular testo G factor a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks includes apprehension of experience eduction process of figuring out from different facts of relations and education of correlateso Apprehension of experience refers to peoples ability to perceive and understand what they experience o Eduction of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar caseo Analogy problems requires use of Spearmans principles LawyerClient is as DoctorPatiento S factor a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task o The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually ranges from 030 to 070o Spearman concluded that g accounted for the moderate correlations among the different tests of ability o So the persons score on a particular test depends on the persons specific ability s on the particular test and also his or her level of general reasoning ability gEvidence from Factor Analysis o Spearman and Pearsonfactor analysis a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of testso Factor analysis determines which tests form groupswhich tests test for the same ability o Factor Ageneral intelligencemostly correlated with information vocabulary and comprehension o Factor Bmaintaining information in shortterm memory and manipulating numbers heavy loading of digit span and moderate loading of arithmetic and digit symbol o Factor Cspatial ability block design object assembly and picture completion and picture arrangement 1
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