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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 12 Lifespan DevelopmentLifespan Development Psychologystudies processed and patterns of change that occur within an individual over lifes coursemajor developmental periods prenatal development infancy and childhood adolescence adulthood and old agePrenatal Developmentprenatal periodnine months between conception and work divided into 3 stageszygotic embryonic fetalzygote stagefirst stage of prenatal development during which zygote divides many times and internal organs begin to formlasts about 2 weeksby 1 week over 100 cells in two layersone for skin hair NS and sensory organs other for digestive system and respiratory systems and glandsndby end of 2 week third layer appears that will form muscles circulatory system and excretory systemembryonic stagesecond stage of development during which heartbeat begins brain starts to function and most of major body structures begin to form28 weeksincreasingly rapid development1 monthheart beats brain and spinal cord begin functioning and most of major body structure begins to formndend of 2 monthmajor features that define human body arms hands fingers legs toes shoulders head eyesreacts reflexively to stimulation most susceptible to terratogensrdbeginning of sexual development23 chromosome pair determines sexY chromosomegene located on it causes production of chemical signal that makes gonads develop into testestestessecrete androgens testosterone which bring about development of male internal sex organs penis and scrotumfemale sexual organs occur naturally without hormonesfetal stagethird stage beginning with appearance of bone tissuecells ending with birth lasts for 7 months nd2 monthfetus is 4cm long and weighs 30 grd3 monthdevelopment of major organs is completed and bone and muscle begin to developfetus is 8 cm long and weighs 90g shows movementth4 monthfetus is 15 cm long and weighs 170 g sleeps and wakes stronger movement heartbeat loud enough to be heard through stethoscopes sound and light sensitiveth6 month30 cm long and 700 gth7 monthcritical periodif born some may survivelast 2 months250g gained a week 50 cm long 35 kg at 9 monthThreats to prenatal developmentmost important factor is monthers dietteratogensantibioticstetracycline causes irregularities in bones and discoloured teethtranquilizerscleft palatecigarettescarbon monoxide decreases available oxygen critical during last half of pregnancy as rapid growth requires abundance of oxygenhigh rates of miscarriageslow birth weighthigh incidence of premature birthhigh rates of Csectionlow arousal levels in nerwbornscleft palate uncommon but statistically relevantbehavioural problems in adolescencecocainehigh incidence of premature birthslow birth weightgrowth defecits lasting till age 7small head circumferenceinterferes with neural developmentlong term aroudal and attention problemsborn addictedwithdrawal symptoms hyperactivity irritability tremors vomittingharder to care forbonding problems with mother and childpsychoactive drugsnot a lot of studies but known effectsalcoholfetal alcohol syndromepre and post natal growth defecitsdeformation of eyes and mouthlow brain massbrain and central nervous system abnormalitiesheart deformationneurodegenerationmothers drinking is increasingly commonas little as 60gday of alcohol can cause FASPhysical and Perceptual development in infancy and childhoodinfantup to age 2qucikly develops skills to influence adult caregivers behaviourMotor developmentat birth most important movements are reflexes automatic movements in response to specific stimulimost important reflexes rooting sucking swallowingmotor develpment follows distinct patterndictated by maturation of muscles and nervous systemmaturation relatively stable change in thought behaviour or physical
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