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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 13 Motivation and EmotionJames Olds and Peter Milnerimplanted electrode in reticular formation but found pleasure centre rats pressed lever over 700houreaons for inconsistency in behaviour is due to motivation motivationa general term for a group of phenomena that affect nature strength or persistence of individuals behaviour includes 2 types of phenomenastimuli that have become associated with pleasant or unpleasant events motivate approach or avoidance behaviour being deprived of particular reinforcer increases an organisms preference for particular behaviourmany approaches to motivation physiological behavioural cognitive and socialphysiological and behaviouralexternal stimuli and internal change that affects persons behaviourthree important categories eating sexual behaviour and agressionparticularly important to survival of individual and species What is MotivationImpossible to seperate motivation from reinforcement and punishmentBiological Needsregulatory behaviourbehaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal and thus restoring homeostasiseg eating drinking hunting shivering building fire putting on warm coatsituations that motivate us also provoke certain emotionshomeostasis deficits or imbalances cause us to perform appropriate regualtory behaviourregulatory system has 4 essential featuressystem variablevariable controlled byregulatory mechanism chracteristic to be regulatedeg temperature in heating systemset pointoptimum value of system variable in regualtory mechanism eg set point for human body temperature is 37C orallydetectorin regulatory process mechanism that signals when system variable deviates from its set pointcorrectional mechanismin regulatory process mechanism that is capable of restoring system variable to set pointnegative feedback systemprocess whereby effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action eg regulatory systemearliest theory of nature of motivation and reinforcement was drive reduction hypothesis hypothesis that a drive resulting from physiological need or deprivation produces unpleasant state that causes organism to engage in motivated behaviour reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcingdrivecondition often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequillibrium that energizes an organisms behaviourfalls into disfavour for 2 reasons drive is almost always impossible to measure so cannot be testedevents we find reinforcing are also exciting and may increase drive Physiology of Reinforcementnormal function of system is to strengthen connections between neurons that detect discriminative stimulus and neurons that produce operant responseessential component is neurons that release dopamine all reinforcement stimuli trigger release of dopamineOptimum Level Theoryremoval of aversive stimulus produces negative reinforcementoptimum level hypothesishypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that restores level of arousal to an optimal level when arousal is too high less stimulation is reinforcing when arousal is too low more stimulation is reinforcingBerlynehypothesized 2 forms of exploration related to arousaldiversive explorationresponse to understimulation boredom that increases diversity of stimuli organismtries to come in contact withspecific explorationreponse to overstimulation usually because of specific need like lack of food or water that leads to needed item thereby decreasing organisms drive levelHebbfocused on how arousal affects effectiveness of behaviourat optimum level of arousal midrange behaviour is organized and effective within that optimal range increasing arousal will produce increasingly effective behaviour at suboptimal level too little arousal will lead to ineffective behaviour because person is not sufficiently motivated too much arousal outside optimal range will leads to disorganized and therefore ineffective behaviourcannot measure empiricallyPerseveranceperseverancetendency to continue performing behaviour even if its not being reinforcedEffects of Intermittent Reinforcementwhen organisms behaviour is no longer reinforced it eventually ceases or extinguishes if it was previously reinforced every time it occured extinction is rapid if it was previously only reinforced intermittently behaviour persists for long timeintermittent reinforcement leads to perseverance even when behaviour is no longer reinforcedEffects of Unnecessary Reinforcementextrinsic rewardsoriginate outside oneselfintrinsic rewardsoriginate inside onselfoffering extrinsic rewards to people who already motivate themselves intrinsicly may undermine intrinsic motivationoverjustification hypothesissuperfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation
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