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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Notes

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Steve Joordens

PSYA02Winter2012 Chapter 12 Lifespan Development o Crosssectional study a study of development in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same timetest a group of 57 9 year old on their grasp of negative numbers o Longitudinal study a study of development in which observations of the same individual are compared at different times of their livestest the same person at different ages through their lives of hisher grasp on negative numbersPrenatal Developmento Prenatal period the 9 months between conception and birth This period is divided into 3 developmental stages the zygotic the embryonic and the fetal Stages of Prenatal Development o Zygote stage the first stage or prenatal development during which the zygote divides many times and the internal organs between to form 2 weeks3 layers of cells o Embryonic stage the second stage of the prenatal development beginning at about 2 weeks and ending at about 8 weeks after conception during which the heart begins to beat the brain starts to function and most of the major body structures begin to formduring this stage the embryo is most susceptible to teratogens any substance or agent or event that can cause birth defectso Beginning of sexual development also occurs during the embryonic stage presence or absence of testes determined the development of other sex organso Testes secrete androgensthe primary class of sex hormones in males most important is testosteroneo Development of female sex organs occur naturallydoes not need to be stimulates aka everyone is born a female and sex change occur only if there are androgenso Fetal stage the third and final stage of prenatal development which lasts for about seven months beginning with the appearance of bone tissue and ending with birthrdo By the end of the 3 month the fetus starts showing movement like kicking and weighs about 90gby ththe end of the 4 month the mother feels the kicking because the fetus is now 170g o During the last 2 months of pregnancy the fetus gains about 250g per weekwhen the fetus is born it is about 50 cm long and about 35 kilogramsThreats to Normal Prenatal Developmento If the mother is malnourished the fetus nervous system develops abnormally and intellectual deficits may resulto Teratogens can cause birth defects o Certain antiobiotics may cause fetal defects o Cocaine increases premature birth and retarded growth up to the age of 7 there may be long term consequences in the areas of arousal and attention in the brainsome babies are born addicted and show withdrawl symptoms like vomiting tremors and irritabilityo Carbon monoxide is cigarette smokes reduces supply of oxygen to the fetuslowered arousal levels in newborns and birth defectsdeficits in the ability of the newborn to process speech sounds and may be related to behavioural problems in adolescence o Fetal alcohol syndromeslowerlower physical and intellectual developmento Organophosphorus pesticides can produce damage to the chromosome structure of the sperm cellsother environmental chemicals may cause damage to the baby too 1Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhoodo Infant toddlerbaby up to 2 years o Newborn human is helpless and absolutely dependent on adult careMotor Developmento Normal motor developmentfollows a distinct pattern which appears to be dictated by maturation of the muscles and the nervous system o Maturation any relatively stable change in though behaviour or physical growth that is due to the aging process and not to experienceo At birth the most important movement are reflexesautomatic movements in response to a certain stimulirooting sucking and swallowingo Considerable growth of the nervous system occurs in the first few months after birth and seems to be associated with the IQ of the child later in childhoodo Important changes in the brain structure occur throughout the lifespan as a result of experienceo Particular kinds of movements must await the development of necessary neuromuscular systemso Complex movements that the baby make depend on further neural development as well as motor developmentPerceptual Developmento At the time of birth a childs sense are functioning to some extentplaying a recording of the mothers voice increases the heart rate of the child while playing strangers voice does not o Sense of touch auditory system eyesight and sense of balance taste and smell are developed not fully ofcoursebut when do infants develop the capacity to interpret sensory signals Form Perceptiono Researchers study the visual perceptual abilities of infants by tracking their eye movements with a device while showing the visual stimulione month old baby doesnt look at the inside of a figure but hisher gaze is trapped by the edgesby 2 months old the baby scans across the border to investigate the interior of the figure o By 3 months babies show clear sign of pattern recognitionthey prefer to look at stimuli that resemble the human face and by 45 months they can distinguish between similar facesDistance Perception o 6 month old babies can perceive a visual cliffoptical illusion of being high up keeps the baby from crawling over to the area of illusion as if they are afraid of fallingo Depth perception is also due to the retinaif the babys eyes are crossed they have no depth perception o This can be fixed through surgery or glassesthe worst influence is at 35 months after birth although it can affect stereopsis depth perception through the eyes even at 4 years of age Critical and Sensitive Periods in Perceptual Developmento Critical period a specific time in development during which certain experiences must occur for normal development to occuro Many perceptual cognitive and behavioural abilities are subject to critical periods 2
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