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Chapter 13

CHapter 13 Notes (Winter2012)

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Steve Joordens

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PSYA02Winter2012 Chapter 13 Motivation and Emotiono Motivation a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature strength and persistence of an individuals behaviouro Situations that motivate our behaviour also provoke emotions What is Motivationo We behave in a particular way to get something or to avoid somethingmotivation is proactive forward looking o Motivation is also reactive in response to conditions present at the time Biological Needso Regulatory behaviour a behaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal thus restoring the condition of homeostasiso Example eating hunting shivering building a fire etc o Homeostasis the process by which important physiological characteristics such as body temperature or blood pressure are regulated so that they remain at an optimum leveldeficits and imbalances motivate us because they cause us to perform the appropriate regulatory behaviour so if we are cold we are motivated to go and grab a blanket so we are not cold again o System variable the variable controlled by a regulatory mechanis for example temperature in a heating systemo Set point the optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism for example the set point for human temperature recorded orally is of 37degreesC o Detector in a regulatory process a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point o Correctional mechanism in a regulatory process the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to that set pointo Negative feedback a process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loopso Example if the room is too cold you turn the heater on to bring the temperature back to 20 degreesonce the temperature reaches 20degrees the heater stops negative feedback o Drive reduction hypothesis the hypothesis that a drive resulting from physiological need or deprivation produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcingexample hunger acts as a drive o Drive a condition often cause by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes the organims behaviour o Not all drives are based on homeostastssexual behaviour an individual can survive without sexual behaviour but the sex drive is deffinately motivating and sexual contact is certainly reinforcingo This theory has fallen into disfavour for 2 reasons drive cannot be measured and secondly we find many events that we experience as reinforcing and also exciting drive increasingexample prolonged foreplay and sexual intercourse are not unpleasant even though they are accompanied by a high level of drive o In general the experiences we really want to repeat the ones we find reinforcing are those that increase our levels of arousalPhysiology of Reinforcement1
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