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Psychology Part 2 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02H3 chapter 13 262012 71200 PM Motivation and EmotionDifferent people act differently in different situations inconsistent behavior y Ex a person who usually picks up hitchhikers does not do so after hearing that a convict has just escaped from a nearby prisony Ex A persons wholikes to play tennis will turn down game because of severe headache o Reasons are aspects of MOTIVATION to moveMotivation general term from a group of phenemona that affect the nature of an individuals behaviour the strength of the behaviour and the persistence of the behaviour What is motivationy Motivation is proactive or forwardlooking we are motivated to perform a behaviour to gain a reinforcer or to avoid an aversive event o Ex food or pain are obvious smiles or frowns are subtle Reaction The reactive sense of motivation applies to why reinforcers might have their effects y Motivation can also be reactive in response to conditions present at the time ReinforcementMotivationBiological Needs y Biological needs are potent motiators o Ex to survive we need air food water vitamins and minerals etc Regulatory Behaviours bring physiological conditions back to normal Eating drinking hunting shivering building a fire and putting on a warm coaty 1 System Variable characteristic to be regulated y 2 Set Point the optimum value of the system variable y 3 Detector monitors the value of the system variabley 4 Correctional Mechanism restores the system variable to the set point EXAMPLE Room whose temperature is regulated by a thermostatically controlled heater The system variable is the air temperature of the room and the detector for this variable is a thermostat The thermostat will be adjusted so contacts of a switch will close when the temperature falls below a preset value set point If the room cools below the set point the thermostat turns the heater on and warms the room Negative Feedback A process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops Drive Reduction Hypothesisa drive resulting from physiological need produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours Reduction of drive is reinforcing y Ex Hunger When you are deprived of the necessities of life you feel unpleasant It will cause an unpleasant state called hunger It serves as a drive condition caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes an organisms behavioury Ex Sexual behaviour A person can survive without it but the sex drive is certainly motivating and sexual contact can be reinforcingCriticisms of this theory1 Drive is almost always impossible to measure You cant measure drive2 If we examine our own behaviour we find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting or drive increasing Homeostasis stable state process of detection and correction which maintains physiological systems at their optimum value Basically deficits or imbalances motivate us because they cause us to perform the appropriate regulatory behaviours Physiology of Reinforcement
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