Textbook Notes (363,507)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA02H3 (932)


12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Caroline Barakat

Intelligence psychology chapter 11Intelligence is a persons ability to learn and remember information to recognize concepts and their relations and to aply the information to their own behaviour in a adaptive way Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgementsDifferential approach favours the development of tests that identify and measure differences in peoples abilities ato solve problems especially those that involve classroom skillsTests our ability to define words explain proverbs solve arithmetic problems discover similarities in shapes and patternsand answer questions about the passage of prose Developmental approach studies the ways in which children learn to perceivemanipulate and think about the world jean piagetInformation processing approachfocuses on the types of skills people use to think and solve various types of problems Theories of IntelligenceDifferential approach we can test the nature of intelligence by studying ways in which people differ on tests of such abilities Tests that derive an IQ score have been developed by psychologists You cannot use a test to measure athletic ability because it involves a lot of skills and variables Intellectual abilities are independent from one another so you can be good at one thing and bad at another Spearmans Two factor Theory Proposed that a persons ability to perform well on a test of intellectual ability is based on two factors o G factor general factor a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks and includes apprehension of experience education of relations and education of correlates o S factor a factor that is specific to a taskEvidence from Factor AnalysisFactor analysis is a procedure that identifies the underlying commonalities among groups of tests In terms of intelligence tests the commonalities would include the particular abilities that affect the persons performance on more than one test Provides clues about the nature of intelligence but it cannot provide a theory of intelligence Some examples of factors include information digit span verbal ability arithmetic comprehension similarities picture completion picture arrangement etc Fluid intelligence is defined by many culture free tasks such as those that measure the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items Crystallized intelligencedefined by tasks that require people to have aquiried information from their culture such as vocabulary and the information learned in school Catell refers to fluid intelligence as closely related to a persons native capacity for intellectual performance it represents the potential for a person to learn and solve problemsCrystallized intelligence what we have accomplished through the use of fluid intelligence what he or she has learnedgc and gf gc is based on casual learning and gf is based on school learning Gc depends on gfFluid intelligence gives us native ability but experience with language and exposure to books school and other learning opportunities develop crystallized intelligence An Information processing Theory of Intelligence three parts of Sternbergs theory of intelligence include analytic intelligencecreative intelligence and practical intelligence Successful intelligence when you can analyse your strengths and weaknesses use your strengths to your advantage and minimize the impact of weakness by overcoming or compensating for them Analytic intelligence mental mechanisms that people use to plan and execute tasksFactor analyses include verbal ability and deductive reasoning Metacomponents people discover the intellectual problems nature selects a strategy for solving it and allocate their resourceswe learn to read a passage fast or slow based on if we need to retain the information reading a novel vs a textbookPerformance componentscomponents needed to perform the task word recognition and working memory are examples of such componenets Knowledge acquisition components are those that the person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant information and integrating it with what she already knows Creative intelligence ability to deal with novel situations and to solve familiar problems automatically The person is ably to analyze situations and come up with creative ways to solve itand mental resources to bear it even though they have never encountered a problem like this in the past They can later automate the same procedure once theyve solved a past problemso that they can solve future problems that are similar Practical intelligence intelligence reflecting behaviours that were subject to natural selection in our evolutionary history Takes on three forms adaptation selection and shaping Adaptationfitting yourself to the environment depending on useful skills and behaviours Socio cultural and physical aspects play alarge impact on the development of practical intelligence Selection refers to the ability to find ones nice within the environment You must find a match between oneself and the environment When the environment is not a good match adaptation does not work and one cannot find another alternative environment selection does not work they can often change their environment to better suit their abilitiesthis is called SHAPING Observations with people with damage to their frontal lobe supports theory of practical intelligence Even after sustaining damage to the frontal lobe due to an accident people still score well on IQ tests But they intern lose the ability to plan their lives and daily activitiesAnalyticalCreative intelligence Practical intelligence Metacompents planning Novel tasks Adaptation adapting to the Performance components Automated tasks environmentlexical access Selection finding a suitable Knowledge acquisition environmentcomponents ability to aquire Shaping changing the vocabulary words environmentNeurophysical theories of intelligenceGarndener stated that intelligences were situated within cultures Intelligences are potentials that may or may not be activated in the individual depending on the extent to which the individuals culture values the expression of the potentials Each of the intelligences occur due to EVOLUTION and has separate uniqueneurophysical underpinnings
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.