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Chapter 18

chapter 18

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 18 The Treatment of Mental Disorders Mental Disorders and Psychotherapy Early Treatment of Mental Disorders: -trephining: surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person so that evil spirits would leave victims head -painful + degrading practises: insults, exorcism, beatings, starving, browning etc. -Pinel experimented successfully with treating patients with mental illness well -Charcothypnosis as means of treatment -eclectic approach: form of therapy where the therapist uses whatever method they feel works best for a particular client at a particular time. Insight Therapies -insight therapy: people are normal but learn maladaptive thought patterns and emotions which are revealed in maladaptive behavioursbehaviour is a symptom of deeper underlying psychological problems and once the cause is understood, the problems will stop -insight leads to cure -Types of insight therapies Type Psychologi Definition st Psychoanalys Freud -Aims to provide client with insight into their is unconscious motivations + impulses -gains insight through: dreams, physical problems, memory, speech, cognitive + emotional reactions to therapy -main goal: interpret clues about origins of intrapsychic conflict given by client Technique: Free association: client encouraged to speak freely, www.notesolution.com without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts or ideas resistance: develops during therapy where the client becomes defensive, unconsciously attempts to halt further insight by censoring their true feelings transference: client begins to project powerful attitudes and emotions onto therapist Countertransference: when therapist projects their emotions on to the clientunhealthy Modern -place less emphasis on sexual factors during Psychodyna development and more emphasis on social + mic Therapy interpersonal experiences -address issues in present life rather than just childhood -ego= plays more active role in influencing persons thoughts + actions and so less constrained by unconscious -can be brieffocuses on schemata that client has about interpersonal relationships and attempts to modify the incorrect ones or ones that prevent client from developing fulfilling relationships with others Humanistic -provide client with greater understanding of his or her therapy unique potential for personal growth and self- actualization Types: client-centered and Gestalt Client- Carl -client allowed to decide what to talk about without centered Rogers strong direction and judgement from the therapist Therapy -incongruence: discrepancy between clients real and ideal selves -goal: reduce incongruence by fostering experiences that will make attainment of ideal self possible. This is helped when therapist shows empathy (ability to perceive world from anothers perspective). -unconditional positive regard: therapist tries to convery to client that their worth as a human is not dependent on anything they think or do or feel. Gestalt Fritz Perls -emphasizes unity of mind and body by teaching client Therapy to get in touch with unconscious bodily sensations and emotional feelings. -therapist is confrontational and challenges client to deal honestly with their emotions www.notesolution.com
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