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Canada (158,223)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA02H3 (932)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 12 Lifespan Development Cross-sectional study: study of development of individuals of different ages at the same time Longitudinal study: study of development of the same individuals at different times PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Prenatal period: period between conception and birth Stages: zygotic, embryonic, fetal X chromosome inactivation determines what genes are passed on to develop in the fetus X chromosome inactivation epigenetic modification: the way DNA molecules are formed with proteins to change the cell inheritance into neurons, blood cells, muscles, etc. o The DNA molecules change due to the chemical environment that it is surrounded in Stages of Prenatal Development 1. Zygote stage: single cell formed at conception; divides many times to form internal organs in the body o cells are arranged in two layers: skin, hair, nervous system, sensory organs digestive system and respiratory system finally, muscles, circulatory, excretory system 2. Embryonic stage: starts at 2 weeks and 8 weeks o heart begins to beat, brains functions, arms, legs, toes, shoulders, etc start to form o teratogens: substances, agents, events that can cause birth defects o sexual development: embryos, testes form o androgens: sexual hormones in males testosterone 3. Fetal stage: lasts 7 months o Bone tissue forms o Kicking and movement, heartbeat can be heard, sensitivity to light Threats to Normal Prenatal Development Mothers diet (alcohol) low brain mass, nervous system abnormality, heart deformation Antibiotics (cocaine) may become addicted, show hyperactivity, vomiting Cigarette smoking reduced oxygen to the fetus, miscarriages, speech Teratogens environment: pesticides; damage to chromosome structure (sperm cells) PHYSICAL AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD www.notesolution.com
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