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PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13: Motivation & Emotions Study Guide

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John Bassili

Chapter 13: Motivation and Emotion Human behaviour is notoriously inconsistent The reasons for inconsistent human behaviour are aspects of motivation Motivation refers to a driving force that moves us to particular action Motivation is a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature of an individuals behaviour, the strength of the behaviour and the persistence of the behaviour There are many approaches to approaches to motivation: physiological, behavioural, cognitive and social. Categories of motivated behaviours: eating, sexual behaviour, and aggression. These behaviours are particularly important to the survival of the individual and of the species Motivation plays and especially important role in social behaviours Our behaviour is motivated by situations that we tend to approach or to avoid situations that are important to us. o These situations evoke behaviours that other people can recognize, including facial expressions, changes in posture, and alteration in tone of voice o They also affect the way we feel o Situations that motivate our behaviour also provoke emotions What is Motivation? We behave in a particular way to get something Motivation is proactive, or forward-looking. o The proactive sense of motivation is very similar to concepts of reinforcement o We are motivated to perform a behaviour to gain a reinforce or to avoid an aversive event o Some events that proactively motivate, such as food or pain, are obvious o Others, such as smiles or frowns, are subtle. www.notesolution.com It is also reactive, or in response to conditions present at the time o Applies to why reinforcers might have their effect Biological Needs Complex organisms possess physiological mechanisms that defect deficits or imbalances associate with these needs and related regulatory behaviours that bring physiological conditions back to normal (ex: eating, drinking, shivering, hunting, etc.) Homeostasis: The process by which physiological characteristics are regulated so that they remain at their optimum values, a regulatory system has four essential features: 1. system variable, the characteristic to be regulated 2. set point, the optimum values of the system variable 3. detector that monitors the value off the system variable 4. correctional mechanism that restores the system variable to the set point Negative feedback: a process whereby the effect by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action. Drive reduction hypothesis: the hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing. Drive: a condition (such as hunger), often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium, that energizes an organisms behaviour. o Not all drives are based on homeostasis, for example, sexual behaviour. Two problems with the drive reduction hypothesis: 1. Drive is almost always impossible to measure. 2. If we examine our own behaviour, we find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting, or drive increasing www.notesolution.com
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