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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Language.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10Language True verbal ability is a social behaviour Language is a social behaviour Language plays a crucial role in our daytoday communication but we also use language as a tool in our remembering and thinking Psycholinguistics a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour Speech and ComprehensionThe ability to engage in verbal behaviour confers decided advantages on our species Through listening and reading we can profit from the experiences of others even from those of people who died long ago Through talking and writing we can share the results of our own experiences We can request from other people specific behaviours and information that are helpful to us We can give information to other people so that their behaviour will change in a way that benefits them or us Perception of SpeechWhen we speak to someone we produce a series of sounds in a continuous stream punctuated by pauses and modulated by stress and changes in pitch When we write sentences as sets of words with spaces between them But when we say senses as a string of sounds emphasizing some quickly sliding over others raising the pitch of our voice on some lowering it on others We maintain a regular rhythmic pattern of stress We pause at appropriate timesfor example between phrasesbut we do not pause after pronouncing each word Speech does not come to us as a series of individual words we must extract the words from a stream of speechRecognition of Speech SoundsAuditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves Using fMRI scans Belin Zatorre and Ahad 2002 found that some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizations both speech and nonspeech than when they heard natural sounds Regions in which there was a large difference were located in the temporal lobe on the auditory cortex When analyzing the detailed information of speech the left hemisphere players a larger role Phonemes the elements of speechthe smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken wordexample word pin consist of three phonemes pinVoiceonset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords Phonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences occurs in both hemispheres
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