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Psychology (9,695)
PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Speech and Comprehension

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John Bassili

PSYA02 Textbook Notes Chapter 10: Language Intro- not long ago humans were the only species considered to have languages (*flexible systems that use symbols to express many meanings) -most species can communicate with one another, but it doesnt mean they have language -Inspired by Project Washoe- many investigators have been able to teach other primates sign language and that true verbal behaviour is a social behaviour -language is also used as a tool in remembering and thinking -linguists have studied the rules of language and have described what we do when we speak or write -researchers in psycholinguistics (*a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour) are more concerned with human cognition ie. How children acquire language, how verbal behaviour develops and how children learn to speak with their interactions with adults Speech and Comprehension Perception of Speech: -we say sentences as a string of sounds, stresses and changes in pitch, pauses, maintaining regular rhythmic pattern of stress- when we listen, we extract the words from a stream of speech Recognition of Speech Sounds: -human vocalizations are clearly distinguished from other sounds -contain enough info that we can recognize individuals from the sound of their speech and filter out non-speech sounds (coughs, chuckles) -auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds -fMRI- some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizations than natural sounds (located on the temporal lobe in the auditory cortex and shown in both hemispheres of the brain)- but when it comes to analyzing the detailed info of speech, the left hemisphere plays a larger role -analysis of speech begins with its elements, phonemes (*the smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word) i.e. pin has 3 phonemes- p + i + n -40 phonemes, 26 letters in English language -rate of speech is 180 words per minute, 14 phonemes per second -one distinction that we can detect is voice-onset time (*the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords) www.notesolution.com
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