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PSYA02H3 (961)
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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Readings (very detailed and helpful) SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOUR Edition 4

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John Bassili

Chapter 11: Intelligence and Thinking Excluding page 347 (THINKING) to page 356 (to these errors) Prologue: Multiplicity of intelligence? A case study of brain damage Mr. V suffered a massive stroke in his right hemisphere that paralyzed the left side of his body He can tell you about his paralyzed leg, about the fact that he is in a wheelchair, and so on, but he does not put these facts together and realize that his days of walking are over Mr. V is very intelligent, but his judgment can be lacking bc of the stroke damage Intelligence: the general term used to refer a persons ability to learn and remember info, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the info to their own behavior in an adaptive way o Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgments Differential approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problem Developmental approach: an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world Information processing approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE Spearmans two-factor theory Charles Spearman proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factors: www.notesolution.com o G (general) factor: according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and eduction of correlates (eduction, not education, is the process of drawing or bringing outthat is, of figuring out from given facts) o S (specific) factor: according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task persons score on a particular test depends on two things: the persons specific ability (s) on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or general reasoning ability Evidence from factor analysis Factor analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests Factor analysis provides clues about the nature of intelligence, but it cannot provide a theory of intelligence Thurstone administered a series of 56 tests to 218 college students and then performed a factor analysisseven factors have been extracted which are labeled verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed Cattell performed a second-order factor analysis and found two major factorHorn and Cattell called there factors: o Fluid intelligence is defined by relatively culture-free tasks, such as those that measure the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items o Crystallized intelligence is defined by tasks that require people to have acquired info from their culture, such as vocab and the kind of info learned in schools - Cattell regards fluid intelligence as closely related to a persons native capacity for intellectual performance; in other words, it represents a potential ability to learn and solve problems - Cattell regards crystallized intelligence as what a person has accomplished through the use of his or her fluid intelligencewhat he or she has learned www.notesolution.com
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