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PSYA02 Notes Ch10-13.docx

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Steve Joordens

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PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 10 LANGUAGE Language flexible systems that use symbols to express many meaningsLanguage is a social behaviour Psycholinguistics A branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour more concern w human cognition than w rules that describe language Speech and Comprehension Perception of SpeechWhen speaking we produce a series of sounds in a continuous stream punctuated by stress and changes in pitchSpeech doesnt come to us as a series of individual words we must extract the words from a stream of speechAuditory system performs the complex task of enabling us to recognize speech soundsSome regions of the brain located in the temporal cortex and auditory cortex showed that the brain responded more when ppl heard human vocalization both speech and nonspeech than natural soundsThe Auditory area on the left hemisphere showed a greater contrast in response Recognition of Speech Sounds Phoneme The minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language such as pinpin each individual letterphoneme The element of speechthe smallest units of sounds that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken wordVoiceonset Time The delay between the initial sound of a consonant such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords Morpheme The smallest unit of meaning in language ie fastest Phoneme are combined to make morpheme Two types 1 Free Morphemecan stand on its own and have meaning ie fast 2 Bound Morphemecant stand on its own and must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning ie ist Recognition of Words in Continuous Speech Importance of Learning and ContextSpecial electrical signal called the N100 wave appears shortly after pplhear the onset of a wordWe are able to recognize the sounds even when speech is muffled or filled w hesitation bc of the context Understanding the Meaning of Speech SyntaxGrammar put togetherRules of language Syntactical Rule A grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases clauses and sentencesPSYA02H3Understanding of syntax is automatic hence we arent conscious of the processSyntax becomes more complexambiguous our brains become more activeSyntactical rules are learned implicitlyindirectly Syntactical Cues help us understand the things ppl say and writeWord OrderTells us what is happening to what ex The boy hit the ball The ball hit the boyDoesnt play same role in all languagesWord ClassGrammatical categories ex noun pronoun verb adjective Function Word Content WordAffixesWord Meanings SemanticsProsody Function Word A preposition article or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying grammatical structure ie a to the some but and when and etc Express the relations bw content words Content Word A noun verb adjective or adverb that conveys meaning Affix A soundgroup of letters that is added to the beginning of a word prefix or its end suffix to alter their grammatical function Semantics word meaning The meanings and the study of the meanings represented by words includes recognition of idioms Prosody The use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words an important means of communication of emotion refers to use of stress rhythm and changes in pitch that accompany speech Relations bw Semantics and Syntax Deep Structure The essential meaning of a sentence wo regard to the grammatical features surface structure of the sentence that are needed to express it in words ie the first thing that comes to the mind before you transform it into the appropriate surface structureSurface StructureThe grammatical features of a sentence Script The characteristics events rules and so on that are typical of a particular situation assists the comprehension of verbal disclosure Knowledge is organized into scripts which specify various events and interactions that ppl have experiencedwitnessedlearned from others Brain Mechanisms of Verbal BehaviourVerbal behaviour suggest that mechanisms involved in perceiving comprehending and producing speech are located in diff areas of the cerebral cortex Speech Production Evidence from Brocas AphasiaThe neural mechanisms that control speech production appear to be located in the frontal lobes
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