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Psychology (9,696)
PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)

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John Bassili

PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 17: The Natures and Causes of Mental Disorders CLASSIFICATION OF DIAGNOSIS OF MENTAL DISORDERS -Emil Kraepelin: created the first comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders What is Abnormal? -abnormal refers to any departure of the norm -most important feature of a mental disorder is not whether a persons behavior is abnormal, but whether it is maladaptive Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders -mental disorders are caused by the interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors The Psychodynamic Perspective -Freud: mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind the id, ego, and superego -for some, the conflicts become so severe that the minds defense mechanisms cannot produce a resolution that is enough for mental health -the resultant is the defense mechanisms distort reality -psychodynamic therapists attempt to make their clients aware of their intrapsychic conflict and defense mechanism failures to regain mental health The Medical Perspective -Hippocrates: believed that excesses of the four humors (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm) led to emotional problems -today many people with mental disorders are not longer treated in mental hospitals, instead they are treated on an outpatient basis with drugs -the medical model suggests that mental disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and www.notesolution.comPSYCHOLOGY nervous system and should be approached for treatment in the same manner as physical illnesses The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective -mental disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors -example, a persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief from tension -what also counts is a persons ongoing subject interpretation of the events taking place in hisher environment The Humanistic Perspective -mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others becoming overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others -they begin to feel no control over the outcomes of the important events in life resulting in depression -humanistic therapy help people realize that they do have intrinsic value The Sociocultural Perspective -cultures play a significant role in the development of mental disorders -mental disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain culturesa phenomenon called culture-bound syndromes The Diathesis-Stress Model of Mental Disorders -a casual account of mental disorders based on the idea that mental disorders develop when a person possess a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them -the combination of a persons genetics and early learning experiences yield a predisposition for a mental disorder The DSM-IV Classification System -the most commonly classification of mental disorders used in North America is Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) www.notesolution.com
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