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PSYA02H3 (931)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Chapter 13 Motivation and EmotionMotivationa general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature strength and persistence of an individuals behaviourproactive reinforcementreactivebiological needs can be very potent motivatorsBiological Needsregulatory behavioura behaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal thus restoring the condition of homeostasishomeostasisthe process by which important physiological characteristics are regulated so that they remain at their optimum leveldeficits or imbalances motivate us because they cause us to perform the appropriate regulatory behaviourssystem variablethe variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism for example temperature in a heating system the characteristic to be regulatedset pointthe optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism the set point for human body temperature recorded orally is approximately 37 degreedetectorin a regulatory process a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point monitors the value of the system variablecorrectional mechanismin a regulatory process the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set pointnegative feedbacka process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loopsdrive reduction hypothesisthe hypothesis that a drive resulting from physiological need or deprivation produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcingnature of motivation and reinforcementeating reduces hunger this drive reduction is reinforcing2 primary reasons for reinforcement fallen into disfavour1 drive is almost always impossible to measurewwwnotesolutioncomeg you obtain pleasure from looking at photographs taken by a friend while on vacation according to the hypothesis your exploratory drive or curiosity drive is high and looking at vacation photos reduces it providing reinforcementthere is no way to measure drive in either of these examples and confirm that it actually existsthe hypothesis cannot be experimentally tested2 reinforcing conversation is one that is also exciting not one that puts you to sleepThe experiences we really want to repeat that is the ones we find reinforcing are those that increase our level of arousaldrivea condition often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes on organisms behaviourie hungerPhysiology of ReinforcementOlds and Milnershowed that electrical stimulation of the brain could be reinforcing to ratsit activates the same system that is activated by natural reinforces drugsStimulus eg sight of lever Neural circuit that detects a particular stimulus neural circuit that controls a particular behaviourbehaviour eg lever press reinforcing stimuluseg foodreinforcement systemstrengthens the connection between perceptual system and motor systeman essential component of the reinforcement system consists of neurons that release dopamine as their transmitter substanceall reinforcing stimuli appear to trigger the release of dopamine in the brainOptimumLevel TheoryOptimumlevel hypothesisthe hypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of arousal to an optimum levelBerlyne2 forms of exploration related to arousal Diversive explorationa response to understimulation boredom that increases the diversity of the stimuli the organism tries to come in contact withSpecific explorationa response to overstimulation usually because of a specific need such as lack of food or water that leads to the needed item thereby decreasing wwwnotesolutioncom
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