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PSYA02H3 (932)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Chapter 10 Language Speech and Comprehension Perception of Speech Recognition of Speech Sounds - we can filter out the non-speech sounds, such as coughs or chuckles, within an individuals vocalization - the auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves Belin, Zatorre, and Ahad using fMRI found that temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex, responded more when people heard human vocalizations than when they heard only natural sounds - when it comes to analyzing the detailed information of speech, the left hemisphere plays a larger role Phonemes the smallest unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as p e.g. good 3 phonemes g oo d voice-onset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p) and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords - phonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, and this occurs in both hemispheres Scott, Blank, Rosen, and Wise using PET scans Superior temporal lobe respond to speech sounds - regions that responded to phonetic information (normal speech sounds or a computerized transformation speech that preserved the complexity of the speech sounds but rendered it unintelligible) - region that responded only to intelligible speech (normal speech sounds or a computerized transformation that removed most normal frequencies but preserved intelligibility) - these latter regions of the auditory cortex must rely on information that transcends the distortions of individual phonemes Ganong found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it - used a computer to synthesize a novel sound that fell between those of the phonemes g and k - we recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemes (ift = gift) Morpheme - the smallest unit of meaning in language - the syntax of a particular language determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemes e.g. the word fastest contains two morphemes, fast, which is a free morpheme, because it can stand on its own and still have meaning, and ist, which is a bound morpheme Recognition of Words in Continuous Speech Sanders, Newport, and Neville examined brain wave activity when people listened to a continuous www.notesolution.com string of sounds (composed of short syllabic) babupudutabatutibubabupubu Sanders took some of the sounds from the continuous stream and designated them as words N100 wave a electrical signal that appears shortly after people hear the onset of a word - when people learned these nonsense sounds as words, they showed the N100 response despite the fact that there were no additional auditory cues to segment the string of sounds affect word perception through top-down processing (context) - when reading just as we do when speaking Understanding the Meaning of Speech Syntax - use words with which the listener is familiar and combine them in specific ways e.g. the two boys looked at the heavy box Syntactical rule a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences (learned implicitly) - our understanding of syntax is automatic (even children can understand) - fMRI studies have shown that as syntax becomes more complex or ambiguous, our brains become more active Knowlton, Ramus, and Squire found that patients with anterograde amnesia were able to learn an artificial grammar even though they had lost the ability to form explicit memories Gabrieli, Cohen, and Corkin learning syntax and word meaning appears to involve different types of memory-and different brain echanisms Syntactical cues are signaled by word order(The A Xs the B), word class(grammatical categories: noun, pronoun, verb), function and content words, affixes, word meanings prosody Function words a preposition, article, or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure e.g. a, the, to, some, and, but, when (express relationship between content words) Content word a noun, verb adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning e.g. apple, rug, went, caught, heavy, mysterious, thoroughly, sadly Affixes a sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word(prefix) or to its end (suffix) to alter their grammatical function e.g. add suffix-ed (past tense) www.notesolution.com
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