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PSYA02H3 (931)

Psychology part 2 textbook notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Psychology part 2 textbook notes Chapter 10Psycholinguisticsa branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour Speech and comprehension Perceptionof speechRecognition of speech soundsAuditory cortex located in the temporal lobe has the highest amount of activity when distinguishing human vocalization to nonhuman vocalizationLeft hemisphere plays a large rolePhonemesthe smallest unit of sound such as pVoiceonset timethe delay between the initial sound of a consonant such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p and the onset of vibration of the vocal cordsMorphemessingle words combination of phonemesRecognition of words in continuous speechthe importance of learning and contextUnderstanding the meaning of speechsyntaxrules of a sentencesyntactical rulesa grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases clauses and sentencesword orderorder of words to find out who does what to whomword classgrammatical categoriesnoun verb preposition continuant adjective and auxiliaryfunction wordsa preposition article or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure include determines quantifiers and prepositioncontent wordsa noun verb adjective or adverb that conveys meaningaffixessound or group of letters that is added to the beginning middle or end of a word prefix infix suffixsemanticsthe meanings and the study of meanings represented by wordsprosodyrefers to the use of stress rhythm and changes in pitch that accompany speechRelation between semantics and syntaxDeep structurethe essential meaning of a sentence without regard to the grammatical features surface structure of the sentence that are needed to express it In wordSurface structurethe grammatical features of a sentenceConduction aphasiaDifficulty repeating words and phrases but can understand them can retain deep structure but not surface structure of other peoples speechesKnowledge of the worldScriptsthe characteristics events rules and so on that are typical of a particular situation assists the comprehension of verbal discourseBrain mechanisms of verbal behaviourSpeechcerebral cortexSpeech productionevidence from Brocas Aphasia Neural mechanism that control speech production appear to be located in the frontal lobesBrocas aphasiasevere difficulty in articulating words especially function words cause by damage that includes Brocas area a region of the frontal cortex on the left speech dominant side of the brainhard to comprehend shit and not fluent speechAggramatism a language disturbance difficulty in the production and comprehension of grammatical features such as proper use of function words word endings and word order Often seen in cases of Brocas aphasiai dont knooowSpeech comprehensionevidence from Wernickes aphasiaWernickes areaa region of auditory association cortex located in the upper part of the left temporal lobe involved in the recognition of spoken wordsWernickes aphasiaa disorder caused by damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex including Wernickes area characterized by deficits in the
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