Intelligence- the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and
remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply
the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way
the study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches: differential
approach, developmental approach, information processing approach.
o Differential approach- an approach to the study of intelligence that
involves the creation of test that identify and measure individual
differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems
o Developmental approach- an approach to the study of intelligence based
in the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the
o Information processing approach- an approach to the study of
intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and
Psychologists have devised an intelligence score that yields single number called
the IQ score (doesnt show that intelligence is a single, general characteristic).
There are three theories of intelligence: 1) a two factor theory, 2) an information
processing theory, 3) a neuropsychological theory.
o Spearmans two factor theory
Charles spearman proposed that a persons performance on a test
of intellectual ability is determined by a two factors: the g factor- a
factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks;
includes apprehension of experience, eduction od relations, and
eduction of correlates, and the s factor- a factor of intelligence that
is specific to a particular task.
The g factor comprises of three qualitative principles of
cognition, apprehension of experiences, eduction of
relations, and eduction of correlates. (Eduction means
bringing out- figuring out from a given task).
o Apprehension of experience means that people
perceive and understand what they experience.
o Eduction of relations means that the person has the
ability to perceive the relationship between the two
(example lawyer and client).
o Eduction of correlates means that the person can
apply a rule from one case to another (example, a
lawyer is to a client as a doctor is to a ___? A:
o If each test measures a separate independent ability
the scores these people make on any one test will be
unrelated to their scores on any other; the
correlations among the tests will be approximately
0. However, if the test measure abilities that are
simply different manifestations of a single trait, the scores will be perfectly related (intercorrelations
close to 1)
Factor analysis- a statistical procedure that identifies common
factors among groups of tests.
the numbers in table 11.1 are called factor loadings; they
are somewhat like correlation coefficients in that they
express the degree to which a particular test is related to a
o Explained three factors- verbal ability, short term
memory, and spatial ability.
Factor analysis provides clues about the nature of
intelligence but it cannot provide a theory of intelligence
Second order factor analysis the relatively culture-free
tasks, such as those that measure the ability to see relations
among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating
series of items. (two major factors) (thurstone found 7
factors related to intelligence- verbal comprehension.
Verbal, fluency, number, special visualization, memory,
reasoning and perceptual speed- however the two factors
below underlie the 7 factors)
o fluid intelligence (gf)-the culture-free tasks, such as
those that measure the ability to see relations
among objects or the ability to see patterns in a
repeating series of items.
Represents a potential ability to learn and
Supplies the nave ability
o crystallized intelligence (gc)- the tasks that require
people to have acquired information from their
culture, such vocabulary and the kind of information
learned in schools.
What a person has accomplished through the
use of his or her fluid intelligence (what he or
she has learned)
Experience with language and exposure to
books, school and other learning
o Both factors are learned and are also based on a
degree of heredity (gf is based on casual learning
and gc is based on cultural, school-type learning)
o If two people have the same experiences, then the
one with a greater fluid intelligence will develop a
greater crystallized intelligence.
o An information processing theory of intelligence Robert Sternberg- the degree of success that people achieve in life
is strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze
and manage their unique combinations of strengths and
weaknesses (used by cognitive psychologists)
Devised a tiarchic theory of intelligence that derives from
the information processing approach used by many
o Successful intelligence: according to Sternberg, the
ability to effectively analyze and manage personal
strengths and weaknesses.
Analytic intelligence- consists of mental
mechanisms that people use to plan and
carry out tasks
Metacomponents- people decide the
nature of an intellectual problem,
make a strategy to solve it, and
allocate their reources
Performance components- the
processes that are actually used to
preform the task (ex. Recognition and
Knowledge acquisition components-
people use to gain ne