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Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Jordan Bel

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Chapter 11 Intelligence- the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way the study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches: differential approach, developmental approach, information processing approach. o Differential approach- an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of test that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems o Developmental approach- an approach to the study of intelligence based in the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world o Information processing approach- an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and solve problems. Psychologists have devised an intelligence score that yields single number called the IQ score (doesnt show that intelligence is a single, general characteristic). There are three theories of intelligence: 1) a two factor theory, 2) an information processing theory, 3) a neuropsychological theory. o Spearmans two factor theory Charles spearman proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by a two factors: the g factor- a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, eduction od relations, and eduction of correlates, and the s factor- a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task. The g factor comprises of three qualitative principles of cognition, apprehension of experiences, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates. (Eduction means bringing out- figuring out from a given task). o Apprehension of experience means that people perceive and understand what they experience. o Eduction of relations means that the person has the ability to perceive the relationship between the two (example lawyer and client). o Eduction of correlates means that the person can apply a rule from one case to another (example, a lawyer is to a client as a doctor is to a ___? A: patient) o If each test measures a separate independent ability the scores these people make on any one test will be unrelated to their scores on any other; the correlations among the tests will be approximately 0. However, if the test measure abilities that are simply different manifestations of a single trait, the scores will be perfectly related (intercorrelations close to 1) Factor analysis- a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests. the numbers in table 11.1 are called factor loadings; they are somewhat like correlation coefficients in that they express the degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factor. o Explained three factors- verbal ability, short term memory, and spatial ability. Factor analysis provides clues about the nature of intelligence but it cannot provide a theory of intelligence Second order factor analysis the relatively culture-free tasks, such as those that measure the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items. (two major factors) (thurstone found 7 factors related to intelligence- verbal comprehension. Verbal, fluency, number, special visualization, memory, reasoning and perceptual speed- however the two factors below underlie the 7 factors) o fluid intelligence (gf)-the culture-free tasks, such as those that measure the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items. Represents a potential ability to learn and solve problems Supplies the nave ability o crystallized intelligence (gc)- the tasks that require people to have acquired information from their culture, such vocabulary and the kind of information learned in schools. What a person has accomplished through the use of his or her fluid intelligence (what he or she has learned) Experience with language and exposure to books, school and other learning opportunities o Both factors are learned and are also based on a degree of heredity (gf is based on casual learning and gc is based on cultural, school-type learning) o If two people have the same experiences, then the one with a greater fluid intelligence will develop a greater crystallized intelligence. o An information processing theory of intelligence Robert Sternberg- the degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses (used by cognitive psychologists) Devised a tiarchic theory of intelligence that derives from the information processing approach used by many cognitive psychologists o Successful intelligence: according to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses. Analytic intelligence- consists of mental mechanisms that people use to plan and carry out tasks Metacomponents- people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, make a strategy to solve it, and allocate their reources Performance components- the processes that are actually used to preform the task (ex. Recognition and working memory) Knowledge acquisition components- people use to gain ne
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