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Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA02H3 (931)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

CHAPTER 10: LANGUAGE Languages flexible systems that use symbols to express many meaning. One conclusion that has emerged from the studies of primates is that true verbal ability is a social behaviour. Language plays a crucial role in our day-to-day communication, by we also use language as a tool in our remembering and thinking. It also enables us to think about very complex and abstract issues by encoding them as words and then manipulating the words according to logical rules. Linguists have studied the rules of language and have described precisely what we do when we speak or write. In contrast, researchers in psycholinguistics, a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour, are more concerned with human cognition than with the particular rules that describe language. Psycholinguists are interested in how children acquire language and study how adults use language and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities. Speech and Comprehension Perception of Speech: Speech does not come to us as a series of individual words; we must extract the words from a stream of speech. Recognition of Speech Sounds: The auditory system performs a formidably complex task in enabling us to www.notesolution.comrecognize speech sounds. Like our ability to recognize faces visually, the auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves. Using fMRI scans, Belin, Zatorre, and Ahad found that some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalization (both speech and non-speech) than when they heard only natural sounds. Regions in which there was a large difference were located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex. When it comes to analyzing the detailed information for speech, the left hemisphere plays a larger role. The analysis of speech usually begins with it elements, or phonemes. Phonemes are the elements of speech the smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word. Voice-onset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords. Voicing is the vibration of your vocal cords. The distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants permits us to distinguish between p and b, between k and g, and between t and d. Phonemic discrimination begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, and this occurs in both hemispheres. However, regions of the left auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speech. Ganong found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it. We recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemes. Phonemes are combined to form morphemes, which are the smallest units of meaning in language. The syntax of a particular language determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemes. Ex: the word fastest contains 2 morphemes, fast, which is a free morpheme, because it can stand on its own and still have meaning, and ist, which is a bound morpheme. Bound morphemes cannot stand on their own and must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning. www.notesolution.com
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