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Canada (161,487)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Textbook

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John Bassili

CHAPTER 11: INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING Most psychologists would define intelligence as a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way. Recently, psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements. The study of intelligence is dominated by 3 main approaches: 1. The differential approach an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems, particularly those that use skills important in the classroom. 2. The developmental approach an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world. 3. The information processing approach an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems. Theories of Intelligence People vary in many ways, such as in their abilities to learn and use words, to solve arithmetic problems, and to perceive and remember spatial information. Is intelligence a global trait or is it a composite of separate, independent abilities? Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number, usually called an IQ score. But the fact that these tests provide a single score does not itself mean that intelligence is a single, general characteristic. www.notesolution.com Some researchers promote the idea that some intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another. Ex: a person can be excellent at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies. Even those who believe that intelligence is a global trait acknowledge that people also have specific intellectual abilities and that these abilities are at somewhat independent. 3 theories of intelligence: a two-factor theory, an information processing theory, and a neuropsychological theory. Spearmans Two-Factor Theory: Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by 2 factors: the g factor, which is a general factor, and the s factor, which is a factor specific to a particular test. G factor according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks, includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and eduction of correlates. S factor according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task. Eduction is the process of drawing or bringing out that is, of figuring out from given facts. Eduction of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case. The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70. Spearman concluded that a general factor (g) accounted for the moderate correlations among different tests of ability. Thus, a persons score on a particular test depends on 2 things: the persons specific ability (s) on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or www.notesolution.com
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