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Chapter 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Jordan Bel
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 14- Personality Personality: a particular pattern of behavior and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another. o Research on human personality requires two kinds of effort: 1) identifying personality characteristics 2) determining the variables that produce and control them in the study of personality we must keep in mind to avoid nominal fallacy- the false belief that the causes of events are explained by simply naming and identifying them. Personality types and traits Greek physician Hippocrates o Medical belief that the body contains four humorous or fluids: Chloric people -Yellow bile Bad tempered and irritable Melancholic people black bile Gloomy and pessimistic temperaments Phlegmatic people- phlegm Sluggish, calm, and unexcitable Sanguine people- blood Cheerful and passionate Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical experiences Personality trait: an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behavior in a variety of situations. Allports Search for traits Gordon Allport was one of the first psychologists o Believed that personality traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioral consistency over time (study found that some aspects of personality stayed consistent over time ) o Not all traits have equal influence on their possessors. Most powerful is the cardinal traits: strong unifying influence on a persons behavior (traits were rare but people who show these stand out in the crowd) Example is such as Nelson Mandelas commitment to justice) Central traits: less singular in their influence than cardinal traits, but capture important characteristics of an individual Example is being honest and warm hearted Secondary traits: have minor influence on the consistency of a behavior Example a persons tendency to frequently change jobs Cattell: sixteen personality traits He did questionnaires and came up with the conclusion that there are 16 personality factors Used factor analysis In his view the 16 personality traits were the cornerstones in which personality is build Eysenck: Three Factors Also used factor analysis to devise a theory of personality Identified three important fators o 1) extroversion: the tendancy to seek the company of other people, to be spontaneous, and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours extroverts have a low levels of cortical excitations. Therefore they seek more external stimulation o 2) Introversion: the tendency to avoid the company of other people, to be inhibited and cautious; shyness introverts have a high level of cortical excitations. Therefore do not seek external stimulation o 3)Psychoticism: the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric, and anti- social a person who has an extreme end of psychoticism is diagnosed with anti-social personality disorder Neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt o moody and unstable Emotional stability: the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with oneself Self-control: the tendency to be kind, considerate, and obedient of laws and rules. Eysenck argued that the most important aspects of a persons temperament are determined by the combination of the three dimensions of extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism (just as colours are produced by the combination of the three dimensions of hue, saturation, and brightness He believes that the functioning of a neural system located in the brain stem produces different levels of arousal of the cerebral cortex Most people accept his three factor theory because his factor analysis was preformed by many different researchers The Five-Factor Model Five factor model theory: A theory stating that personality is composed of five primary dimensions: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. This theory was developed sing factor analysis of ratings of the words people use to describe personality characteristics. Neuroticism, extroversion, openness Personality inventory (NEO-PI-R): the instrument used to measure the elements described in the five-factor model. Correlation in traits are more in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins o Shows that outside influences pale beside genetic influences. The Dark triad Machiavellianism: a trait characterized by skill at manipulating others socially Psychopathy: A trait describing lack of empathy for others and a high degree of impulsivity. Machiavellianism and psychopathy together create a trait called narcissim. Narcissim: a trait characterized by grandiosity and feelings of superiority. o Formed the Dark Triad of overlapping of negative traits The dark triad is considered different from the five factors, although there is low to moderate correlations between them. Males tend to score higher on the tests that measure the dark triad although intercorrelations between the traits are the similar between both sexes Traits across Cultures Same words do not mean the same thing in different cultures o Example: the word conscientiousness from the five factor theory means something different in Dutch, Hungarian and Italian o Best thing to do is to find acceptable counterparts of the five factors in all cultures; the first three factors of the model (neuroticism, extroversion, and openness) can be found in most cultures, but the cross-cultural validity of the others is questionable. People in college were asked (50 different cultures) to do the third-person version of NEO-PI-R. The five factor model was replicated in almost all cultures (Morocco and Nigeria were two of the half a dozen cultures that did not show this pattern). Women were more positive then men in rating others, especially when rating other women. Cultures that are geographically close appeared to share similar personality traits but the location does not matter (Allik and McRae) o The authors suggested that it was from shared gene pools (china and Korea share the same genetic ancestry) o The study of acculturation (the assimilation of a persons behavior with that persons culture) may help identify whether gene plays a part in personality or personality traits only have to do with the environment o Example is the Chinese people who immigrated to Canada found that the differences between them and European Canadians had lessened the longer they lived in Canada. Openness and agreeableness increased in the immigrant groups but introversion remained the same (therefore later we realize that introversion has to do with genetics) Heritability of Personality Traits Cattell and Eysenck, have asserted that a persons genetic history has a strong influence on his or her personality. Psychologists assessed the heritability of the trait by comparing identical and fraternal twins, and twins raised together and separate and if raised by biological or adoptive parents o Identical twins personality traits correlate a lot more than fraternal twins (the correlation was exactly double of fraternal twins)
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