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PSYA02H3 (931)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 study notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

CHAPTER 14: PERSONALITY PERSONALITY: particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another. Psychologists study personality to discover the causes of individual differences in behaviour. People used to be divided into different personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences. People prefer to measure the degree to which an individual expresses a particular personality trait. Personality trait: personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in different situations. Gordon Allport: first psychologist to search systematically for a basic core of personality traits. He found approx.18 000 characteristics. Not all traits have equal influence on each other. Cardinal traits have strong unifying influence on persons behaviour. These traits are rare, and these people stand out. Central Traits are less singular in their influence than cardinal traits; capture important characteristics of individuals. Secondary traits include characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour. Raymond Cattell : identified 16 personality factors. Hans Eysenck : used factor analysis to devise a theory of personality. Important factors: extroversion and introversion Extroversion: outgoing nature and a high level of activity. Introversion: refers to shy, reserved, and careful. People with neuroticism are fraught with worry and guilt, moody and unstable. 1 www.notesolution.com
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