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Canada (162,165)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYA02H3 (962)
Chapter 18


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Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 18THE TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND PSYCHOTHERAPY Early Treatment of Psychological Disorders Sometimes psychological disorders are thought of as products of modern times but they have been around since human existence began In the past people who would now be classified as paranoid schizophrenics were seen as prophets or being possessed by the devil The earliest known attempts to treat psychological disorders trephining a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person The opening was made to let evil spirits escape Signs of healing near the holes in the skulls suggest some people survived this process Many other painful and degrading practices were directed to people possessed by evil spirits such as exorcism beatings starving near drowning drinking foul tasting concoctions Delusional schemes of people with psychotic disorders include beliefs of personal guilt and unworthiness and in early times would think themselves as evil and some confessed to acts of sorcery and accepted persecution and punishment Johann Wierfirst to challenge the practise intended to combat witchcraft in the 16th century saying the people suffered from mental illness but the Church condemned his writings and they did not remerge until the 20th century Later belief in witchcraft and demonology waned and people with psychological illnesses were either sheltered by their families lived a moderate life or sent to asylums that were inhumane patients were chained and sometimes wallowed in their own excrement Some with bizarre catatonic postures or fanciful delusions were exhibited to public for a fee Treatments designed to cure patients tied up doused in cold water bled made to vomit strapped into tranquilizing chair designed by Benjamin Rush with a box placed over their head Philippe PinelFrench physician appointed director of La Bicetre a mental hospital in France in 1793 Believed mental patients would respond favorably to kind treatment He let some of the patients out of the chains and let them walk around the hospital grounds outside orderliness and general calm replaced previous noise stench and pervasive aura of despair and many were discharged Dorothea Dixsimilar to Pinel in USA spurred reform of many mental institutions and responsible for laying groundwork for the first psychiatric hospital in Nova Scotia The Development of Psychotherapy Modern approach to therapy traced to Franz Anton Mesmerdevised a theory of magnetic fluxes according to which he attempted to effect cures by manipulating iron rods and bottles of chemicals In reality he hypnotized his patients and thereby alleviated some of their symptoms thus is why hypnosis at first was known as mesmerism Jean Martin Charcotstarted studying hypnotisms therapeutic uses after his student hypnotised a woman and induced her to display signs of hysteria while hypnotised Charcot analysed her as a hysteria patient but when she awoke no more symptoms Freuds association with Charcot and Breuer started him on his lifes study of determinants of personality and origin of mental illnesshe created the practice of psychoanalysis Therapists who believe behaviour strongly influenced by environmental contingencies and peoples perception of them likely to use cognitivebehavioural approaches in treating those
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