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Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA02H3 (931)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 7

chapter 7 textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Mental Disorders Classification and diagnosis of Mental Disorders What is Abnormal? Abnormal = any departure from the norm; its become a pejorative connotation and we use the term to describe characteristics we dislike or fear Distinction between normal and abnormal behaviour is subjective The most important feature of a mental disorder isnt whether persons behaviour is abnormal (different from most other people), but whether its maladaptive Making it impossible to people to hold jobs, raise families, or relate to others socially Understanding cultural difference in beliefs is important; the fact that diagnoses are affected by social or cultural contexts doesnt mean that theyre invalid Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders Interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors Some mental disordersespecially the less severe ones, appear to be caused by environmental factors or by peoples perception of these factor, stress A child who is constantly criticized by a parent may learn to be passive and non- responding (this strategy may be adaptive in interactions with the parent but would be maladaptive in other social situations) Many of the more severe mental disorders appear to be caused by hereditary Mental disorders are characterized by abnormal behavior, thoughts and feelings The difference between normal and abnormal is whether the difference is maladaptive Understanding the cognitive factors involved in mental disorders requires identification of the origins of distorted perceptions and maladaptive thought patterns The Psychodynamic Perspective Freuds early work Mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the 3 components of the mind: id , ego, and superego Conflict becomes so severe that the minds defence mechanisms cant produce a resolution adequate for mental health; so defence mechanisms distort reality or individual functions in some areas of life in a manner characteristic of an earlier developmental stage Symptoms include, extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour, depression, distorted perceptions, and patters of thinking and paralysis or blindness for which there is no physical cause The Medical Perspective The origins of the medical perspective lie in the work of Hippocrates Formulated the idea that excesses of the 4 humours led to emotional problems Extension of his ideas led to concept of mental illness - illness of the mind Early asylums were poorly run, problems were poorly understood and often mistreated Medical model is based on the ideas that mental disorders are caused by specific www.notesolution.com abnormalities of the brain and nervous system and they should be treated in the same way as physical illnesses Biological factors are known to at least contribute to the development of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and drugs are usually used for treatment Not all mental disorders can be traced directly to physical causes, so other perspectives that focus on cognitive and environmental factors emerged The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective Mental disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors Doesnt rise spontaneously in a person Caused by the persons interaction with their environment and their ongoing subjective interpretation of the events in the environment Encouraging clients to replacesubstitute maladaptive thoughts and behaviours with more adaptive ones The Humanistic Perspective Proponents of humanistic perspective believe that proper and natural personality development occurs when people experience unconditional positive regard and mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others (thus they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others and define their personal value in terms of others reaction to them) They lack confidence in their abilities and feel as though they have no stable, internal value as persons (symptoms accompany depression) Purpose of humanistic therapy is to persuade people that they do have intrinsic value and help them achieve their own unique, positive potential as human beings The Sociocultural Perspective The cultures in which people live in play a significant role in the development of mental disorders Proper treatment involves an understanding of cultural issues Cultural influences influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behaviour as normal or abnormal Culture bound syndromes: some mental disorders that seem to occur only in certain cultures The Diathesis-Stress Model of Mental Disorders Diathesis-stress Model: the combination of a persons genetics and early learning experiences yields a tendency (a diathesis) for a particular mental disorder However, the mental disorder will develop only if that person is confronted with stressors that exceed their coping capabilities The DSM-IV Classification Scheme Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV): a widely used manual for classifying mental disorders devised to provide a reliable, universal set of diagnostic categories having criteria specified as explicitly as possible www.notesolution.com
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