Textbook Notes (362,842)
Canada (158,078)
Psychology (9,549)
PSYA02H3 (931)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 14


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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

CHAPTER 14: PERSONALITY The Psychodynamic Approach Freud was the first to claim that what we do is often irrational and that the reasons for our behaviour are seldom conscious. Psychodynamic a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience. The Development of Freuds Theory: Jean Martin Charcot investigated the usefulness of hypnosis as a treatment for hysteria. Freud and Breuer published a book called Studies on Hysteria one case in the book was of Anna O who suffered from a number of symptoms, including loss of speech, disturbances in vision, headaches, and paralysis and loss of feeling in her right arm. Under hypnosis, she experienced a strongly felt emotion that gave her relief from her symptoms. It was as if the emotions had been bottled up, and reliving the original experiences had uncorked them. This release of energy (which Breuer and Freud called catharsis) presumably eliminated her symptoms. But the woman was not cured. Freud concluded from his observations of patients that all human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives, which, when activated, supply psychic energy. If something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from being discharged, psychological disturbances will result. Freud believed that instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons life. Many events and the reactions they cause are normal but traumatic events www.notesolution.com may seriously threaten the desired state of psychic energy equilibrium. During a traumatic event, a person may try to deny or hide hisher strong emotional reaction rather than express it. But of course we must sometimes hide and not act on strong emotions like strong anger. Unconscious the inaccessible part of the mind. Freud believed that the mind represses the memories of traumatic events, most of which are potentially anxiety provoking, from being consciously discovered. Freud argued that our personalities are determined by both conscious and unconscious powers, with the unconscious exerting considerable influence on the conscious. Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego: Freud said that the mind consists of unconscious, preconscious, and conscious elements. The unconscious includes mental events of which we are not aware of, and the preconscious involves mental events that may become conscious through effort. Freud divided the mind into 3 structures: the id, the ego, and the superego. Id the unconscious reservoir of libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes. Libido an insistent, instinctual force that us unresponsive to the demands of reality; the primary source of motivation. Pleasure principle the rule that the id obeys: obtain immediate gratification, whatever form it may take. Ex: if you are hungry, the id compels you to eat. For Freud, the id was a source of unrestrained, uncivilized, and ultimately harmful behaviour. www.notesolution.com
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