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Chapter 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 11 – Intelligence - intelligence: a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relationships, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way o any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgment - study of intelligence has THREE main type: - 1) differential approach: o development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s abilities to solve problems o ex/ this approach asks people to define words, complete puzzles, explain proverbs, solve arithmetic problems ETC - 2) developmental approach: o studies the ways in which children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world - 3) information processing approach: o focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve various types of problems  e.g. processing information received to solve problems Theories of Intelligence - some intellectual abilities are completely independent from each other o person can be excellent at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal anologies Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory - g factor: a factor of intelligence that is GENERAL to ALL intellectual tasks - s factor: a factor of intelligence that is SPECIFIC to a particular tasks - apprehension of experience: one’s ability to perceive and understand what they’ve experienced - Spearman; a person’s score on a test depends on their SPECIFIC ability on the particular test AND their level of general reasoning ability Evidence from Factor Analysis - factor analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests o these common factors would be particular abilities that affect people’s performance on more than one test o determines which sets of tests form groups o can measure 100 different things, factor analysis allows you to boil those 100 things into 4 groups o provides clues about the nature of intelligence - Thurstone extracted seven factors o 1) verbal comprehension o 2) verbal fluency o 3) number o 4) spatial visualizion o 5) memory o 6) reasoning o 7) perceptual speed - Cattell found two major factors o 1) fluid intelligencef(g )  ability to see relations and patterns  represents a potential ability to learn ad solve problems o 2) crystallized intelligencc (g )  takss that require us to have acquired information  accumulated life knowledge we use for tasks  what a person has accomplished using their fluid intelligence (what they learned)  mental processes that have become automatic (Sternberg) - 2 people, same experience, the one with the greater gfwill develop the greatest c An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence - successful intelligence: a) analyze ones strengths and weaknesses, b) use the strengths to the greatest advantage and c) minimize the impact of weaknesses by overcoming them - Sternberg  triarchic theory of intelligences ; THREE parts - 1) Analytic Intelligence o the ability to effective analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses o THREE components to going about this  a) metacomponents: process by which people decide the nature of the problem, then select a strategy for it, and then allocating their resources  b) performance components: the processes actually used to PERFORM the task  c) knowledge acquisition components: those that the person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant information and integrating it with what they already know - 2) Creative Intelligence o ability to deal with novel situations o high creative intelligence?  able to analyze the situation and bring mental resources to bear on the problem o several of the same problems encountered?  high creative intelligence allows you to have an automated response to the procedure - 3) Practical Intelligence o adaption: fitting oneself into another environment but using useful skills and behaviours o selection: findings one’s own niche in the environment o shaping: changing the environment o Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence - Gardiner; intelligences are potentials that may/may not be activated in the individual depending on the extent to which the individual’s culture values the expression of those potentials - Gardiner; Theory of Multiple Intelligences - Logical-mathematical intelligence o ability to reason logically and to process mathematical equations - Verbal – linguistic intelligence o ability to use language, sensitivity to meanings and sounds of words - Visual-spatial intelligence o ability to understand patterns in closed or open spaces - Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence o ability to control the body precisely - Musical intelligence o ability to understand and create musical patterns - Intrapersonal intelligence o ability to understand the self, including one’s skills, emotions, thoughts and intentions - Interpersonal intelligence o ability to recognize differences among people to understand their emotions, intentions, and motivations - syllogism: a logical construction that contains a major premise = all birds have feathers [TRUE] o also has a minor premise = a Canada goose is a bird [TRUE] o and a conclusion = a Canada good bird has feathers [TRUE/FALSE?]  determined by deductive reasoning Intelligence Testing Intelligence Tests - The Binet-Simon Scale o an intelligence test developed in 1905 - norms: data concerning comparison groups that permit the score of an individual to be assessed relative to his/her peers - mental age: the lev
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