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PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Textbook notes

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John Bassili

Chapter 11 INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING -Intelligence is the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way. -psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgments. -The study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches: 1) Differential approach favours the development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problems, particularly those that use skills important in the classroom. 2) developmental approach studies the ways in which children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world. Jean Piaget, is the most influential proponent of this approach. 3) information processing approach focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve various types of problems. Robert Sternbergs influential theory of successful intelligence, focuses on peoples ability to analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses Theories of Intelligence -the differential approach assumes that we can best investigate the nature of intelligence by studying the ways in which people differ on tests of such intellectual abilities. -Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number, usually called an IQ score, but the fact that these tests provide a single score does not itself mean that intelligence is a single, general characteristic. -AQ is athletic quotient. AQ measures are not useful in terms of predicting which sports they are good at. -there are three theories of intelligence: a two-factor theory, an information processing theory, and a neuropsychological theory. www.notesolution.comSpearmans Two-Factor Theory -Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factors: the g factor, which is general factor, and the s factor, which is a factor specific to a particular test. -g factor: According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and eduction of correlates. -s factor: According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task -Apprehension of experience refers to peoples ability to perceive and understand what they experience. -Eduction of relations refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case. -Correlations among various tests of particular intellectual abilities have provided empirical evidence for Spearmans two-factor theory. -The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70 -Spearman concluded that g factor accounted for the moderate correlations among different tests of ability. -In conclusion, a persons score on a particular test depends on two things: the persons specific ability (s factor) on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or the general reasoning ability. Evidence from Factor Analysis -With Karl Pearson, Spearman developed a statistical procedure known as factor analysis. -Factor analysis: A statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of test. -In the case of intelligence tests, these common factors would be particular abilities that affect peoples performance on more than one test. -Suppose that a group of people takes several different tests of intellectual ability. If each persons scores on several of these tests correlate well with one another, we would www.notesolution.com
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