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Canada (158,032)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA02H3 (931)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Readings (very detailed and helpful) SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOUR Edition 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 15: Social Psychology Prologue: Social psychology and salespeople - Lowballing: a technique whereby a salesperson quotes a very low price, only to find a reason 9for example, a mistake while reading the invoice) to raise the price later - Social psychology: the branch of psychology that studies our social naturehow the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours Social cognition: - Social cognition: the processes involved in perceiving, interpreting, and acting on social information Schemata and social cognition - Impression formation: the way in which we integrate info about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is Schema - Schema: a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and creates info about a person, place, or thing - Aid us in interpreting the world - Research has demonstrated that understanding is greater when people know the title of the passage before it is read Central traits - Central traits: personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of other traits (i.e. when someone is described to be warm you have positive reactions and when someone is described to be cold you have negative feelings) - Recent work suggests that the negative influence of the cold trait is stronger than the positive influence of the warm trait and this is bc there is already a bias toward positivity in impressions of people www.notesolution.com The primary effect - Primary effect: the tendency to form impressions of people based of the first info we receive about them - We develop trait lists ourselves: we observe what a person does and says, we purposefully think about what those behaviours reveal about his or her personal qualities - Researchers suggested that people may generate trait labels from observing a persons behavior (i.e. combined the trait bravery with firefighter who did a heroic rescue) The self - Self-concept: self-identity. Ones knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself - Self-concept is dynamic; it changes with experience - Thinking of ourselves only in terms of who we are at present does not accurately reflect how we will think of ourselves in the future or the kind of person we might become - Self: a persons distinct individuality - Self-schema: a mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about oneself; a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that constitute the self-concept Culture and social psychology - Cross-cultural psychology: a branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behavior - Cultures differ with respect to two major classes of variables: biological (i.e. diet, genetics) and ecological (i.e. geography, climate) - Cultural psychologists believe that basic psychological processes may be universal, but that these processes are informed by culture - Western cultures emphasize the uniqueness of the individual and an appreciation of being different from others while Japanese and other Eastern cultures emphasize paying attention to others and the relatedness of the individual and others - Researchers have conceptualized two construals (to construe something is to interpret it or to explain its meaning) of the self that reflect cultural differences www.notesolution.com
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